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CYPRIANUS.

eluding a few addressed to himself or to his clergy. This collection is of inestimable value, not only on

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account of the light which it throws on the life, character, and opinions of the prelate himself, but from the lively picture which it presents of the state of ecclesiastical affairs, and of a multitude of circumstances of the greatest importance in histo­rical and antiquarian researches. Our limits pre­clude us from attempting to give any analysis of these documents; but we may remark, that the topics principally considered bear upon the ques­tions, general and local, which we have noticed above as agitating the Christian community at this epoch, namely, the treatment of the Lapsi, the schism of Novatus and Felicissimus, the schism of Novatianus, the baptism of infants, the re-baptising of heretics, to which we may add a re­markable discussion on a subject which has been revived in our own day, the necessity of employing wine in the sacrament of the Eucharist, in which Cyprian strongly denounces the tenets of the Aquarii or Encratites (JEpisL 63), and employs many expressions which have been constantly ap­pealed to by those opposed to the practice of the Romish church which denies the cup to the laity.

In most editions of Cyprian the tract De Gratia Dei, together with the fragment of a letter from Donatus prefixed to it, are set down as the first two epistles, by which arrangement the number is swelled to eighty-three. Three more were printed by Baluze, which, however, are now admitted to be spurious.

The following works are admitted as authentic by many editors, although they do not rest on such satisfactory evidence as the foregoing ;—

1. De Spectaculis liber.

2. De Laude Martyrii ad May sen et Maximum et ceteros Confessores,

The following works, although frequently found bearing the name of Cyprian, and many of them, probabl}^ belonging to the same age, are now re-ected by all:—

1. Ad Novatianum Haereticum, quod Lapsis Spes Veniae non sit deneganda, ascribed by Erasmus to Cornelius. 2. De Disciplina et bono Pudicitlae, ascribed in like manner by Erasmus to Cornelius. 3. De Aleatoribus* 4. De Montibus Sina et Sio?i contra Judaeos. 5. Oratio pro Martyribus— Gratia in Die Passionis suae et Confessio S. Cypri-ani, assigned by many to Cyprian of Antioch. 6. De Rebaptismate. 7. De Cardinalibus Christi Operibus, now recognized as the work of Arnold, abbot of Bona Vallis. 8. De Singular-Hate Cleri-corum. 9. In Symbolum Apostolicuin Eocpositio. The work of Rufinus. 10. Adversus Judaeos qui Christum insecuti sunt. 11. De Revclatione Capitis B. Jo. Baptistae : in this work mention is made of the Prankish king Pepin. 12. De Duplici Mar-ti;rio, in which mention is made of the Turks ! 13. De Duodecim Abusionibus Saecidi. 14. Dis-positioCoenae. .15. De Pascha Computus, attributed to Cyprian by Paulus Diaconus, and found in the Cottonian MS. 16. Three poems, the author or authors of which are unknown, have been ascribed to Cyprian—Genesis, Sodoma, Ad Senatorem. The first seems to be the same with that assigned by Gcnnadius to Salvianus, bishop of Marseilles.

The editions of Cyprian are very numerous.

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The editio princeps was printed at Rome from a Parisian MS., under the inspection of Andrew, bishop of Aleria, by Sweynheym and Pannartz,

CYPSELUS.

14-71, fol. The first edition in which any attempt was made to exhibit a pure text, and to separate the genuine from the spurious works, was that of Erasmus, whose labours are above all praise. It appeared at Basle, from the press of Froben, in 1520, fol. The two best editions are — 1. That printed at Oxford, 1682, fol., and edited by John Fell, bishop of Oxford, to which are subjoined the Annales Cyprianici of John Pearson, bishop of Chester; reprinted at Bremen, 1690, fol., with the addition of the Dissertationes Cyprianicae of Dodwell, which had previously appeared in a separate form, Oxon. 1684, 4 to. 2. That com­menced by Baluze, and completed by a monk of the fraternity of St. Maur, who is hence styled Maranus, Paris, fol. 1726. These two editions taken together contain everything that the student can possibl}r desire.

As ancient authorities we have a biography of Cyprian still extant drawn up by his confidential friend the deacon Pontius [ pontius], together with the proconsular acts relating to his martyrdom. Among modern lives we may specify those by Le Clerc, BibHothzque Universelle, vol. xii. p. 208 — 378; by Tillemont, Memoires Ecclesiastiques, vol. iv. pp. 76 — 459 ; and by Maranus, prefixed to the edition of Baluze. No publication on this subject contains such an amount of accurate investigation with regard not only to the prelate himself, but also to the whole complicated ecclesiastical history of the times, as the Annales Cyprianici of Pearson, an abstract of which has been compiled by Schoenc-mann, and will be found in his Bibl. Patrum. Lat. vol. i. pp. 80 — 100 (c. iii. § 3), and a vast mass of valuable matter is contained in the Dissertationes Cyprianicae of Dodwell.

Compare also Fabric. Bibl. Med. et inf. Lat. i. p. 444 ; Funccius, de L. L. veg. senect. c. x. § 19 ; Schiock, Kirchengesclit. i. p. 210, and iv. p. 246, &c. ; Lumper, Histor. T/teoloa. Grit, pars xi. p. 58, &c. ; Walch, Bibliotlieca Patristica, ed. Danz ; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. 1 6 ; Milman, History of Christianity, ii. p. 246; Rettberg, Thasc. C'dcil. Cyprian dargestellt nach seinem Leben und Wirken, Gutting. 1831; Poole, Life and Times of Cyprian, Oxford, 1840. ' [W. R.]

CYPSELUS (KityeAos), a son of Aepytus, father of Mcrope and father-in-law of Cres-phontes, was king of Basilis on the Alpheius in

Arcadia. (Pans. iv. 3. § 3, viii. 5. §$ 4, 8, 2.9. § 4.) *" [L. S.]

CYPSELUS, of Corinth, was, according to Hero­dotus (v. 92), a son of Aeetion, who traced his descent to Caeneus, the companion of Peirithous. Pa.usanias (ii. 4. § 4, v. 2. § 4, 1 7. § 2, and c. 18) de­scribes Cypselus as a descendant of Melas, who was a native of Gonusa near Sicyon, and accompanied the Dorians against Corinth. The mother of Cypselus belonged to the house of the Baccliiadae, that is, to the Doric nobility of Corinth. Accord­ing to the tradition followed by Herodotus, she married Aeetion, because, being ugly, she met with no one among the Bacchiadae who would have her as his wife. Her marriage remained for some time without issue, and when Aeetion consulted the oracle of Delphi about it, a son was promised to him, who should prove formidable to the ruling party at Corinth. When the Bacchiadae were in­formed of this oracle, which at the same time threw light upon a previous mysterious oracle, they re­solved for their own security to murder the child-

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