The Ancient Library

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On this page: Datis – Daunus – Daurjses – David – Daza Maximinus – Decatephorus – Decebalus


Marathon in b. c. 490. (Herod, vi. 94, &c.) [artaphernes, No. 2.] When the armament was on its way to Greece through the Aegean sea, the Delians fled in alarm from their island to Tenos; but Datis re-assured them, professing that his own feelings, as well as the commands of the king, would lead him to spare and respect the birthplace of " the two gods." The obvious expla­ nation of this conduct, as arising from a notion of the correspondence of Apollo and Artemis with the sun and moon, is rejected by Muller in favour of a far less probable hypothesis. (Herod, vi. 97 ; Muller, Dor. ii. 5. § 6, 6. § 10; Thirlwall's Greece, vol. ii. p. 231; Spanheim, ad Callim. Hymn, in Del. 255.) The religious reverence of Datis is further illustrated by the anecdote of his restoring the statue of Apollo which some Phoenicians in his army had stolen from Delium in Boeotia. (Herod, vi. 118 ; Paus. x. 28 ; Suid. s. v. Adris.) His two sons, Armamithres and Tithaeus, commanded the cavalry of Xerxes in his expedition against Greece. (Herod, vii. 88.) He admired the Greek language, and tried hard to speak it; failing in which, he thereby at any rate unwittingly enriched it with a new word—Acmoyxos. (Suid. /. c.; Arist. Pax, 289 ; Schol. ad loo.) [E. E.]

DATIS (Aa-rts) is mentioned by the Ravenna Scholiast on Aristophanes (Ran. 86) as one of the four sons of Carcinus the elder [see p. 612], though other authorities speak only of three. That there were four is also distinctly stated by the comic poet Pherecrates. (Ap. SchoL ad Arist. Vesp. 1509.) By the Scholiast on the Peace (289), Datis is again mentioned as a tragic poet, and the Scholiast on the Wasps (1502) tells us that only one, viz. Xenocles, was a poet, while the other three were choral dancers. From these considerations, Meineke has conjectured with much probability that Datis was only a nickname for Xenocles, expressive of imputed barbarism of style, ^ariff^s. (Meineke, Hist. Grit. Com. Graec. p. 513, &c., where in p. 515, Philocles occurs twice erroneously for Xeno­ cles.) [E. E.]

DAUNUS (Aavvos or Aavnos). 1. A son of Lycaon in Arcadia, and brother of Tapyx and Peucetius. These three brothers, in conjunction with Illyrians and Messapians, landed on the eastern coast of Italy, expelled the Ausonians, took possession of the country, and divided it into three parts, Daunia, Peucetia, and Messapia. The three tribes together bore the common name lapy-gians. (Anton. Lib. 31.)

2. A son of Pilumnus and Danae, was married to Venilia. He was the father of at least the most ancient among the ancestors of Turnus. (Virg. Aen. ix. 4, and Serv. on ix. 148.)

3. A king of Apulia. He had been obliged to flee from Illyria, his native land, into Apulia, and gave his name to a portion of his new country. (Daunia.) He is said to have hospitably received Diomedes, and to have given him his daughter Euippe in marriage. (Fest. s. v.; Plin. H. N. iii. 11; comp. diomedes.) [L. S.]

DAURJSES (Aat/punjs), the son-in-law of Dareius Hystaspis, was one of the Persian com­manders who were employed in suppressing the Ionian revolt. (b. c. 499.) After the defeat of the Ionian army at Ephesus, Daurises marched against the cities on the Hellespont, and took Dardanus, Abydus, Percote, Lampsacus, and Paesus, each in one clay. He then marched against the Carians,



who had just joined in the Ionian revolt, and de­ feated them in two battles ; but shortly afterwards Daurises fell into an ambush, and was killed, with a great number of the Persians. (Herod, v. 116 —121.) [P. S.J

DAVID, of Nerken, a learned Armenian philo­sopher and a commentator on Plato and Aristotle, was a relation of the Armenian historian, Moses of Chorene, and lived at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the sixth century after Christ. He studied at Athens under Syrianus, the preceptor of Proclus, and was one of those later philosophers who made it their chief aim to harmonize the Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy. Of the life and writings of David much important information is given by C. Fr. Neumann, Memoire sur la Vie et les Outrages deDavid, Paris, 1829 ; comp. Berlin. Jakrb. fur ivissensch. Kritik. 1829, p. 797, &c. David wrote several philosophical works in the Armenian and Greek languages, and translated some of the writings of Aristotle into the Arme­nian. His commentaries on the Categories of Aris­totle and likewise on the Isagoge of Porphyry, which are still extant, are not without some merit, and are principally of importance for the informa­tion which they contain respecting the history of literature. (Stahr, Aristotelia, vol. i. pp.. 206,

207, ii. pp. 63, 68, 69, 197.) Whether he was alive when the philosophers were exiled from Athens by the emperor Justinian, and returned into Asia in consequence of their expulsion, is un­certain. (Fabric. Bill. Gr. iii. pp. 209, 485, v. p. 738.) His commentaries were translated into Arabic and Hebrew, and manuscripts of such translations are still extant. (Buhle's Aristot. vol. i. p. §98 ; Neumann in the Nouveau Journal Asiatique, vol. i.) There is another commentator on Aristotle, of the same name, but a different person, namely, David the Jew. (Jourdain, Reclierches sur VAge et VOrigine des Traductions Latines tfArid. Paris, 1819, pp. 196, 197.) [A. S.]

DAZA MAXIMINUS. [maximinus.]

DECATEPHORUS (Ae/ccmj>o|o0s), that is, the god to whom the tenth part of the booty is dedicated, was a surname of Apollo at Megara. Pausanias (i. 42. § 5) remarks, that the statues of Apollo Pythius and Decatephorus at Megara re­ sembled Egvptian sculptures. [L. S.]

DECEBALUS (Ae/cej8aAos), was probably a title of honour among the Dacians equivalent to chief or king, since we find that it was borne by more than one of their rulers (Trebell. Poll. Trig. Tyrann. c. 10), and that the individual best known to history as the Decebalus of Dion Cassius is named Diurpaneus by Orosius, and DorpJianeus by Jornandes.

This personage was for a long series of years, under Domitian and Trajan, one of the most en­terprising and formidable among the enemies of Rome. Having displayed great courage in the field and extraordinary ability in every depart­ment of the military art, he was raised to the throne by the reigning sovereign, Douras, who abdicated in his favour. The new monarch quickly crossed the Danube, attacked and drove in the Roman outposts, defeated and slew Appius Sa-biims, governor of Moesia, and, spreading devas­tation far and wide throughout the province, gained possession of many important towns and fortresses. Upon receiving intelligence of the&e calamities, Domitian hastened (a.d. 86) with nil


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