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DIANA.

was very celebrated for his own victories, and those of his sons and grandsons, in the Grecian games. He -yvas descended from Damagetus, king of lalysus, and, on the mother's side, from the Messenian hero, Aristomenes. [da.magetus.] The family of the Eratidae ceased to reign in Rhodes after b. c. 660, but they still retained great influence. Diagoras was victor in boxing twice in the Olympian games, four times in the Isthmian, twice in the Nemean, and once at least in the Pythian. He had therefore the high honour of being a TrepioSowoys1, that is, one who had gained crowns at all the four great festivals. He also ob­ tained many victories in games of less importance, as at Athens, Aegina, Megara, Pellene, and Rhodes. There is a story told of Diagoras which displays most strikingly the spirit with which the games were regarded. When an old man, he accompanied his sons, Acusilaiis and Damagetvis, to Olympia. The young men, having both been victorious, car­ ried their father through the assembly, while the spectators showered garlands upon him, and con­ gratulated him as having reached the summit of human happiness. The fame of Diagoras and his descendants was celebrated by Pindar in an ode (Ol. vii.) which was inscribed in golden letters on the wall of the temple of Athena at Ciiidus in Rhodes. Their statues were set up at Olympia in a place by themselves. That of Diagoras was made by the Megarian statuary, callicles. The time at which Diagoras lived is determined by his Olympic victory, in the 79th Olympiad. (b.c. 464.) Pindar's ode concludes with forebodings of misfor­ tune to the family of the Eratidae, which were realized after the death of Diagoras through the growing influence of Athens. [DouiEus.] (Find. OL vii. and Scfiol.; Pans. vi. 7. § 1 ; Cic. 7use. i. 46 ; Mtiller, .Dorians, iii. 9. § 3 ; Clinton, F. H. pp. 254, 255 ; Krause, Olymp. p. 269, Gymn. u. Jgon. i. p. 259, ii. p. 743.) [P. S.]

DIANA, an original Italian divinity, whom the Romans completely identified with the Greek Artemis. The earliest trace of her worship occurs in the story about Servius Tullius, who is said to have dedicated to her a temple on the Aventine, on the ides of Sextilis. (Augustus.) It is added that, as Diana was the protectress of the slaves, the day on which that temple had been dedicated was afterwards celebrated every year by slaves of both sexes, and was called the day of the slaves (dies servorum ; Fest. s. v. servorum dies; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 100; Martial, xii. 67.) Besides that day of the slaves, we hear of no festival of Diana in early times, which may be accounted for by supposing that either she was a divinity of inferior rank, or that her worship had been introduced at Rome without being sanctioned or recognized by the go­vernment, that is, by the ruling patricians. The for­mer cannot have been the case, as the goddess was worshipped by the plebeians and the Latins as their patron divinity; for a tradition related that the plebeians had emigrated twice to the Aventine, where stood the temple of Diana (Liv. ii. 32, iii. 51, 54; Sallust, Jug. 31) ; and the temple which Servius Tullius built on the Aventine was founded for the benefit of the Latin subjects, who assembled and sacrificed there every year. (Dionys. iv. 26 ; comp. Liv. i. 45 ; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 4.) The Sabines and Latins, who formed the main stock of the plebeians, were thus in all probability the ori­ginal worshippers of Diana at Rome, Now as we

DI3UTADE8.

know that the Aventine was first occupied by conquered Sabines who were transplanted to Rome (Serv. adAen. vii. 657; Dionys. iii. 43), and as it is stated that shortly before the decemviral legislation the Aventine was assigned to the plebeians, and that the law ordaining this assignment was kept in the temple of Diana (Dionys. x. 32; Liv. iii. 54), it seems clear that Diana's worship was intro­ duced at Rome by the Sabines and Latins on their becoming plebeians, and that she was worshipped by them in particular without the state taking any notice of her, or ordaining any festival in honour of her. Varro (de L. L. v. 74) moreover expressly attests, that the worship and name of Diana had come from the Sabines. Now, as the religion of the Latins and Sabines did not differ in any es­ sential point from that of the Romans, we may ask what Roman divinity corresponded to the Sabine or Latin Diana ? Diana loved to dwell in groves and in the neighbourhood of wells; she in­ spired men with enthusiasm and madness; she dreaded the very sight of male beings so much, that no man was allowed to enter her temple, and she herself remained a virgin (Horat. Epist. ii. 1. 454 ; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 3; Fest. s. v. Juvenilia; Augustin, de Civ. Dei, vii. 16) ; and these charac­ teristics at once shew a striking resemblance be­ tween Diana and Feronia or Fauna Fatua. This circumstance, and the fact that Diana -was the god­ dess of the moon, also render it easy to conceive how the Romans afterwards came to identify Diana with the Greek Artemis, for Fauna Fatua bore the same relation to Picus and Faunas that Artemis bore to Apollo. (Hartung, Die Relig. der Rom. ii. p. 207, &c.; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, i. p. 3679 &c.) f [L. S.]

DIAS (Afas), of Ephesus, a Greek philosopher of the time of Philip of Macedonia. He belonged to the Academics, and was therefore considered a Sophist, that is, a rhetorician. When he saw the threatening position of Philip towards Greece, he prevailed upon the king to turn his arms againsi Asia, and advised the Greeks to accompany him on his expedition, saying that it was an honourable thing to serve abroad for the purpose of preserving liberty at home. (Philostr. Vit. Sophist, i. 3.) [L. S.] DIAULUS (AiauAos), an individual, apparently at Rome, in the first century after Christ, who is mentioned by Martial (Epigr. i. 31. 48) as having been originally a surgeon, and having become af­terwards a bearer in funerals (vespillo). [W. A. G.j DIBU'TADES, of Sicyon, was the reputed in­ventor of the art of modelling in relief, which an accident first led him to practise, in conjunction with his daughter, at Corinth. The story is, that the daughter traced the profile of her lover's face as thrown in shadow on the wall, and that Dibu-tades filled in the outline with clay, and thus made a face in relief, which he afterwards hardened with fire. The work was preserved in the Nymphaeum till the destruction of Corinth by Mummius. (Plin. H.N. xxxv. 12. s. 43.) Pliny adds, that Dibutades invented the colouring of plastic works by adding a red colour to them (from the existing works of this kind it seems to have been red sand), or mo­delling them in red chalk; and also that he was the first who made masks on the edges of the gut­ter tiles of the roofs of buildings, at first in low relief (protypa), and afterwards in high relief (ectypct). Pliny adds " Hinc et fastigia templorum orta," that is, the terra-cotta figures which Dibu-

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