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H. N. in. 20 ; Justin, xii. 2.) The worship and service of gods and heroes was spread by Diomedes far and wide: in and near Argos he caused temples of Athena to be built (Plut. de Flum. 18; Paus. ii. 24. § 2); his armour was preserved in a temple of Athena at Luceria in Apulia, and a gold chain of his was shewn in a temple of Artemis in Peuce-tia. At Troezene he had founded a temple of Apollo Epibaterius, and instituted the Pythian games there. He himself was subsequently worshipped as a divine being, especially in Italy, where statues of him existed at Argyripa, Metapontum, Thurii, and other places. (Schol. ad Find. Nem. x. 12; Scylax, Peripl. p. 6 ; comp. Strab. v. p. 214, &c.) There are traces in Greece also of the worship of Diomedes, for it is said that he was placed among the gods together with the Dioscuri, and that Athena conferred upon him the immortality which had been intended for his father
Tydeus. It has been conjectured that Diomedes is an ancient Pelasgian name of some divinity, who was afterwards confounded with the hero Diomedes, so that the worship of the god was transferred to the hero. (Bockh, Explicat. ad Find. Nem. x. p. 463.) Diomedes was represented in a painting on the acropolis of Athens in the act of carrying away the Palladium from Troy (Paus. i. 22. § 6), and Polvgnotus had painted him in the Lesche at Delphi, "(x. 25. § 2, 10. § 2.) Comp. Brandstater, Die Gescli. des AetoL Land. p. 76, &c.
2. A son of the great Diomedes by Eulppe, the daughter of Daunus. (Anton. Lib. 37-)
3. A son of Ares and Cyrene, was king of the Bistones in Thrace, and was killed by Heracles on account of his mares, which he fed with human flesh. (Apollod. ii. 5. § 8 ; Diod. iv. 15 ; Serv. ad Aen. i. 756.) Hyginus (Fab. 250) calls him a son of Atlas by his own daughter Asteria. [L. S.]
DIOMEDES (aio^stjs), a Greek grammarian, who wrote a commentary or scholia on the gram mar of Dionysius Thrax, of which a few fragments are still extant. (Villoison, A need. pp. 99, 126, 172, 183, 186; Bekker, Anecd. ii.) He seems also to have written on Homer, for an opinion of his on Homer is refuted by the Venetian Scholiast on Homer (ad IL ii. 252). [L. S.]
DIOMEDES, the author of a grammatical treatise " De Oratione et Partibus Orationis et Vario Genere Metrorum libri III." We are entirely ignorant of his history, but since he is frequently quoted by Priscian (e.g. lib. ix. pp. 861, 870, lib. x. 879, 889, 892), he must have lived before the commencement of the 6th century. The work is dedicated to a certain Athanasius, of whom we know nothing whatsoever. It is remarked elsewhere [charisius], that a close correspondence may be detected between the above work and many passages in the Institutiones Grammaticae of Charisius, and the same remark applies to Maximus Victorinus.
Diomedes was first published in a collection of Latin Grammarians printed at Venice by Nic. Jenson, about 1476. It is to be found in the Grammaticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui of Puts- chins, 4to. Hanov. 1605, pp. 170—527. For cri tical emendations, consult Scioppizts, Suspect. Lect. and Reuvens, Collectanea Litteraria^ Leyden, 1815. See also Osann, Beitr'dge zur Griech* u. Rom. Lit. <7e.vc7i.ii. p. 331. [W.R.]
DIOMEDES, ST. (A<o^&7?s), a physician, saint, and martyr, was born at Tarsus in Cilicia,
of Christian parents. He lived at Tarsus for some time, and practised as a physician, but afterwards removed to Nicaea in Bithynia, where he conti nued till his death. We are told that he practised with great success, and used to endeavour, when ever he had an opportunity, to convert his patients to Christianity. For his efforts in this cause he was ordered to be brought before the emperor Dio cletian, who at that time happened to be at Nico- medeia in Bithynia, but died on his way thither, about the beginning of the fourth century after Christ. A church was built at Constantino ple in his honour by Constantine the Great, which was afterwards adorned and beautified by the emperor Basil I. in the ninth century. He is commemorated by the Romish and Greek churches on the 16th of August. (Aeta Sand.; Bzovius, Nomendator Sanctorum Professione Medicorum, Carpzovius, de Medicis ab Ecclesia pro Sanctis lia- bitis; Menolog. Graecorum.) [W. A. G.]
DIOMEDON (Aio^ueScoi/), an Athenian commander during the Peloponnesian war, came out early in the campaign of b. c. 412, the first after the Syracusan disaster, with a supply of 16 ships for the defence of Ionia. Chios and Miletus were already in revolt, and the Chians presently proceeded to attempt its extension to Lesbos. Diomedon, who had captured on his first arrival four Chian ships, was soon after joined by Leon with ten from Athens, and the two commanders with a squadron of 25 ships now sailed for Lesbos. They recovered Mytilene at once, defeating the Chian detachment in the harbour; and by this blow were enabled to drive out the enemy and secure the whole island, a service of the highest importance. They also regained Clazomenae, and from Lesbos and the neighbouring coast carried on a successful warfare against Chios. (Thuc. viii. 19—24.) In this service it seems likely they were permanently engaged until the occasion, in the following winter, when we find them, on the recommendation of Peisander, who with his oligarchical friends was then working for the recall of Alcibiades, placed in the chief command of the fleet at Samos, superseding Phrynichus and Scironidcs. After acting against Rhodes, now in revolt, they remained, apparently, during the period of inaction at the commencement of the season of B. c. 411, subordinate to Peisander, then at Samos. Hitherto he had trusted them : their appointment had been perhaps the result of their successful operations in Lesbos and Chios, and of a neutrality in party-matters : perhaps they had joined in his plan for the sake of the recall of Alcibiades, and now that this project was given up, they drew back, and saw moreover, as practical men, that the overthrow of democracy would be the signal for universal revolt to Sparta : Thucydides says that they were influenced by the honours they received from the democracy. For whatever reason, they now, on Peisander's departure, entered into communication with Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus, and, acting under their direction, crushed the oligarchical conspiracy among the Samians, and on hearing that the government of the Four Hundred was estab-^ lished in Athens, raised the standard of independent democracy in the army, and recalled Alcibiades. (viii. 54, 55, 73.)
Henceforth for some time they are not named, though they pretty certainly were among the commanders of the centre in the battle of Cynossema,