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which he established his philosophical school. Sur­rounded by numerous friends and pupils and by his three brothers, Neocles, Charidemus, and Aristobu-lus, who likewise devoted themselves to the study of philosophy, Epicurus spent the remainder of his life in his garden at Athens. His mode of living was simple, temperate, and cheerful, and the asper­sions of comic poets 'and of later philosophers who were opposed to his philosophy and describe him as a person devoted to sensual pleasures, do not seem entitled to the least credit, although they have suc­ceeded in rendering his name proverbial with pos­terity for a sensualist or debauchee. The accounts of his connexion with Leontium, Marmarium, and other well known hetaerae of the time, perhaps be­long to the same kind of slander and calumny in which his enemies indulged. The life in Diogenes Laertius affords abundant proof that Epicurus was a man of simple, pure, and temperate habits, a kind-hearted friend, and even a patriotic citizen. He kept aloof from the political parties of the time, and took no part in public affairs. His maxim was \dOe (Biwaras, which was partly the result of his peculiar philosophy, and partly of the political condition of Athens, which drove men to seek in themselves happiness and consolation for the loss of political freedom. During the latter period of his life Epicurus was afflicted with severe sufferings, and for many years he was unable to walk. In the end his sufferings were increased by the formation of a stone in his bladder, which terminated fatally after a severe illness of a fort­night. He bore his sufferings with a truly philo­sophical patience, cheerfulness, and courage, and died at the age of 72, in Olymp. 127.2, or b. c. 270. His will, which is preserved in Diogenes Laertius (x. 16, &c.), shews the same mildness of character and the same kind disposition and attachment to his friends, which he had manifested throughout life. Among his many pupils Epicurus himself gave the preference to Melrodorus of Lampsacus, whom he used to call the philosoplier, and whom he would have appointed to succeed him (Diog. Laert. x. 22, &c.) ; but Metrodorus died seven years before his master, and in his will Epicurus appointed Hermarchus of Mytilene his successor in the management of his school at Athens. Apollodorus, the Epicurean, wrote a life of Epicu­rus, of which Diogenes made great use in his ac­count of Epicurus, but this is now lost, and our principal source of information respecting Epicurus is the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, who how­ever, as usual, only puts together what he finds in others; but at the same time he furnishes us some very- important documents, such as his will, four letters and the K^ptai ti6£ai, of which we shall speak below. With the account of Diogenes we have to compare the philosophical poem of Lu­cretius, and the remarks and criticisms which are scattered in the works of later Greek and Roman writers, nearly all of whom, however, wrote in a hostile spirit about Epicurus and his philosophy and must therefore be used with great caution. Among them we must mention Cicero in his philo­sophical treatises, especially the De Finibus, and the De Natura, Deorum; Seneca in :his letter to Lucilius, and some treatises of Plutarch in his so-called Moralia.

Epicurus appears td have been one of the most prolific of all the ancient Greek writers. Diogenes Laertius (x. 26), who calls him 7roAvypa<£coTaTOs,


states that he wrote about 300 volumes His works, however, are said to have been full of re^ petitions and quotations of authorities. A list of the best of his works is given by Diogenes (x. 27, &c.), and among them we may mention the Ilepl </>ucrea>s in 37 books, Hep] aro^tav Kal Kevov, "'ETriTo/jiri rcav irptis <j>vcriKotis, Tlpos rovs Meyapucods Siairopiai, Kvptai 8o£c«, Tlepl reAous, ITepi Kpirrjplou 3} K.a.vd>v7 XaipedrifAos rj Trepi &«yz>, TLepl filwv in three books, Ilepi tt/s kv rp dro/Jto yoavlas, ITepl €ii*ap}jLev7)s, Ilepi €t5o0A<oi>, Hepl SiKaioffdvris Kal rwv a\\cov dpercoj>, and 'Eiriffrohai. Of his epistles four are preserved in Diogenes, (x. 22, 35, &c., 84, &c., 122, &c.) The first is very brief and was ad­dressed by Epicurus just before his death to Ido-meneus. The three others are of far greater im­portance : the first of them is addressed to one Herodotus, and contains an outline of the Canon and thePhysica; the second, addressed to Pythocles, con­tains his theory about meteors, and the third, which is addressed to Menoeceus, gives a concise view of his ethics, so that these three Epistles, the genuine­ness of which can scarcely be doubted, furnish us an outline of his whole philosophical system. An abridgement of them, is preserved in Eudocia, p. 173, &c. They were edited separately by Nurnberger in his edition of the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, Niirnberg., 1791, 8vo. The letters, to Herodotus and Pythocles were edited separately, by J. G. Schneider under the title of Epicuri PJiysica et Meteorologica duabus Epis^ tolis comprehensa^ Leipzig, 1813, 8vo. These letters, together with the above mentioned Kvpiat 8o|cu, that is, forty-four propositions containing the substance of the ethical philosophy of Epicurusj which are likewise preserved in Diogenes, must be our principal guides in examining and judging of the Epicurean philosophy. All the other works of Epicurus have perished, with the exception of a considerable number of fragments. Some parts of the above-mentioned work, Hept <f>i$(rew$, espe­cially of the second and eleventh books, which treat of the €?8coAa, have been found among the rolls at Herculaneum, and are published' in C. Corsini's Volumin. Herculan. vol. ii. Naples, 1809, from which, they were reprinted separately by J. C. Orelli, Leipzig, 1818, 8vo. Some fragments of the tenth book of the same work have been edited by J. Th. Kreissig in his Comment, de Sallust* Histoi\ Fragm. p. 237, &c. If we may judge of the style of Epicurus from these few remains, it must be owned that it is clear and animated, though it is not distinguished for any other peculiar merits.

With regard to the philosophical system of Epi­curus, there is scarcely a philosopher in all antiquity who boasted so much as Epicurus of being inde^ pendent of all his predecessors, and those who were believed to have been his teachers were treated by him with scorn and bitter hostility. He prided himself upon being an ath-oSi'Sa/cTos, but even a superficial glance at his philosophy shews that he was not a little indebted to the Cyrenaics on the one hand and to Democritus on the other. As far as the ethical part of his phi­losophy is concerned thus much may be admitted", that, like other systems of the time, it arose from the peculiar circumstances in which the Greek states were placed. Thinking men were led to seek within them that which they could not find without. Political freedom had to a great extent

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