The Ancient Library

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On this page: Eros – Erotianus – Erotius – Erucia Gens – Erxias – Erycina Ce – Erycius – Erymanthus


Athens, where he had an altar at the entrance of the Academy. (Pans. i. 30. § 1.) At Megara his statue, together with those of Himeros and Pothos, stood in tne temple of Aphrodite. (Paus. i. 43. § 6, comp. iii. 26. § 3, vi. 24. § 5, vii. 26. § 3.) Among the things sacred to EroSj and which fre­quently appear with him in works of art, we may mention the rose, wild beasts which are tamed by him, the hare, the cock, and the ram. Eros was a favourite subject with the ancient statuaries, but his representation seems to have been brought to perfection by Praxiteles, who conceived him as a full-grown youth of the most perfect beauty. (Lu-cian, Am. ii. 17; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, 5.) In later times artists followed the example of poets, and represented him as a little boy. (Hirt, Myihol. Bilderb. ii. p. 216, &c.; Welcker, Zeitschrift fur die alte Kunst, p. 475.) Respecting the connexion between Eros and Psyche, see psyche. [L. S.]

EROS ("Epws) occurs in three ancient Latin inscriptions as the name of one or more physicians, one of whom is supposed to have been physician to Julia, the daughter of the emperor Augustus. There is extant a short work, written in bad Latin, and entitled " Curan/Jarum Aegritudinum Muliebrium ante et post Partum Liber unicus," which has sometimes been attributed to Eros. The style, however, and the fact that writers are quoted in it who lived long after the time of Augustus, prove that this supposition is not correct. It has also been attributed to a female named Trotula, under whose name it is generally quoted; but C. G. Gruner, who has examined the subject in a dissertation entitled " Neque Eros, neque Trotula, sed Salernitanus quidam Medicus, isque Christianus, Auctor Libelli est qui De Morbis Mulierum inscribitur" (Jenae, 1773, 4to.), proves that this also is incorrect. The work is of very little value, and is included in the Aldine collet tion, entitled "Medici Antiqui omnes qui Latinis Litteris," &c., fol., Venet. 1547, and in the collec­ tion of writers " Gynaeciorum," or w on Female Diseases," Basil. 4to, 1566. It was also published in 1778, Lips. 8vo., together with H. Kornmann, " De Virginum Statu," &c. [W. A. G.]

EROTIANUS ('EpwnWs), or, as he is some-tunes called, Herodianus ('HpooSicw/os), the author of a Greek work still extant, entitled Twv. irap* 'IirTTOKparci a<=|€(oj/ 'Swaywyfii Vocum, quae a/pud Hippocratem sunt, Cottectio. Itis uncertain whether he was himself a physician, or merely a gramma­rian, but he appears to have written (or at least to have intended to write) some other T^prks on Hip­pocrates besides that which we now ppssess (pp. 23, 208, ed. Franz). He must have liy,ed (and probably at Rome) in the reign of the emperor Nero, a. d. 54—68, as his work is dedicated to his archiater, Andromachus. It is curious as contain­ing the earliest list of the writings of Hippocrates^, that exists, in which we find the titles of several treatises now lost, and also miss several that now form part of the Hippocratic collection. The rest of the work consists of a glossary, in which the words are at present arranged in a partially alphabetical manner, though it appears that this mode of arrangement is not that which was adopted by the author himself. It was first published in Greek, 8vo., 1564, Paris, in H. Stephani Dictiom-rium Medicum; a Latin translation by Barth. Eustachius appeared in 1566, 4to., Venet. ; the last and best edition is that by Franz, Lips. 1780,



8vo., Greek and Latin, containing also the glos­ saries of Galen and Herodotus, a learned and copious commentary, and good indices. It has also been published with some editions of the works of Hippocrates. [W. A. G.]

EROTIUS, vicarius and quaestor, one of the commission of Sixteen, appointed by Theodosius in a. d. 435, to compile the Theodosian Code* He does not appear, however, to have taken any distinguished part in its composition. [DiODORUS, vol. i. p. 1018.] [J. T. G.]

ERUCIA GENS, plebeian. Only one member of this gens is mentioned in the time of the repub­lic, namely, C. Erucius, the accuser of Sex.Roscius of Ameria, whom Cicero defended in b. c. 80. From Cicero's account he would appear to have been a man of low origin. (Cic. pro Rose. 13, 16, 18— 21, 29, 32.) His name also appears as one of the accusers of L. Varenus, who was likewise defended by Cicero, but in what year is uncertain. [va­renus,] He was called by Cicero in his speech for Varenus Antoniaster, that is, an imitator of the orator Antonius. (Cic, Fragm, pro Varen. 8, p. 443, ed* Orelli.) The Ericius ('EpiW) who is mentioned by Plutarch (Sull. 16, 18) as one of Sulla's legates in the Mithridatic war, is supposed by Drumann (Oesch. Roms, vpl, iii. p. 68) to be a false reading for Hirtius, but we ought perhaps to read Ericius.

Under the empire, in the second century after Christ, a family of the Erucii of the name of Clarus attained considerable distinction. [clarus.]

ERXIAS. [ebgias.]

ERYCINA CEpwefw?), a surname of Aphrodite, derived from mount Eryx, in Sicily, where she had a famous temple, which was said to have been built by Eryx, a son of Aphrodite and the Sicilian king Butes. (Dipd. iv, 83.) Virgil (Aen. v. 760) make? Aeneias build the temple. Psophis, a daughter of Eryx, was believed to have founded a temple of Aphrodite Erycina, at Psophis, in Arcadia. (Paus. viii. 24. § 3.) From Sicily the worship of Aphro­dite (Venus) Erycina was introduced,, at Rome about the beginning of the sepond Punic war (Liv. xxii. 9,10, xxiii. 30, &c.), and in b.c. 181 a tem­ple was built to her outside the Porta Collatina. (Liv. xl, 34 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 871, Rent. Amor. 549 ; Strab. vi. p. 272 ; comp. (Die. in Verr. iy, 8 ; Horat. Oarm. i. 2. 33; Ov. Heroid. xv. 57.) [L. S.]

ERYCIUS ('Eprf/ctps), the name of two poets, whose epigrams are in the Greek Anthology. The one is called a Cyzicene, the other: a Thessalian; and, from the internal evidence of the epigrams, it is probable that the one lived in the time of Sulla, and about b, c. 84, the other under the emperor Hadrian. Their epigrams are so mixed up, that it is impossible to distinguish accurately between them, and we cannot even determine which of the two poets was the elder, and which the younger. We only know that the greater number of the epi­grams are of a pastoral nature, and belong to Ery^ cius, of Cyzicus. (Brunck, Anal., yol; ii. p. 295; Ja-cobs^ Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p, 9, vol. xiii. pp. 891, 892; Fabric. Bill Graec. vol. iv. p. 474.) IP.-S.J

ERYMANTHUS ('Epfyavbos). 1. A river-god in Arcadia.: who had a temple and a statue at Psophis. (Paus, viii. 24. § 6; Aelian, V.ff, ii. 33.)

2. A son of Apollo, was blinded by Aphrodite, because he had eeen her in the bath. Apollo, in revenge, metamorphosed himself into a wild boar, and killed Adonis. (Ptplem. Heph. i, 306.)

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