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On this page: Erymas – Erysichthon – Erythrus – Eryx – Eryximachus – Esaias


B. A son of Aristas and father of Arrhon, or, according to others, the son of Areas and father of Xanthus. (Paus. viii. 24. § 1.) [L. S.]

ERYMAS ('Epifcas), the name of three different Trojans. (Horn. II. xvi. 345, 415 ; Virg. Aen. ix. 702.) [L.S.]

ERYSICHTHON fEpwr^w), that is, the tearer up of the earth. 1. A son of Triopas, who cut down trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for which he was punished by the goddess with fearful hunger. (Callim. Hymn, in Cer. 34, &c. ; Ov. Met. viii. 738, &c.) Miiller (Dor. ii. 10. § 3) thinks that the traditions concerning Triopas and Erysich-thon (from epeuefpi], robigo) belong to an agricul­tural religion, which, at the same time, refers to the infernal regions.

2. A son of Cecrops and Agraulos, died without issue in his father's lifetime, On his return from Delos, from whence he brought to Athens the an­ cient image of Eileithyia. His tomb was shewn at Prasiae. (Apollod. iii. 14. § 2 ; Paus. i. 18. § 5, 2. §5, 31. §2.) [L.S.]

ERYTHRUS ("EpvSpos) !• A son of Leucon, and grandson of Athamas. He was one of the suitors of Hippodameia, and the town of Erythrae, in Boeotia, was believed to have derived its name from him. (Paus. vi. 21. § 7 ; Muller, Orchom. p. 210. 2nd edit.)

2. A son of Rhadamanthus, who led the Ery-thraeans from Crete to the Ionian Erythrae/ (Paus. vii. 3. § 4.) There are two other mythical per­sonages of the name of Erythrus, or Erythrius, from whom the Boeotian Erythrae, and the Ery­thraean Sea, are said to have received their names respectively. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 267 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. 'EpvS-pa ; Curtius, viii. 9.) [L. S.]

ERYX ("Epv£), tne name of three mythical personages. (Diod. iv. 83; Apollod. ii. 5. §10; Ov. Met. v. 196.) [L. S.]

ERYXIMACHUS ('Epi;|i>axos), a Greek physician, who lived in the fourth century b. c., and is introduced in the Convivium of Plato (p. 185) as telling Aristophanes how to cure the hiccup, and in the mean time making a speech himself on love or harmony ("Epws), which he illustrated from his own profession. [W. A. G*]

ESAIAS ('Htrafas), sometimes written in Latin isaias. 1. Of cyprus, lived probably in the reign of John VII. (Palaeologus) about a. d. 1430. Nicolaus Comnenus mentions a work of his, described as Oratio de Lipsanomackis, as ex­tant in MS. at Rome; and his Epistle in defence of the procession of the Holy Spirit from the Fa­ther and the Son, in reply to Nicolaus Sclengias, is given by Leo Allatius in his Graecia Ortho-doxa^ both in the original, Greek and in a Latin version* Two epistles or* Michael Glycas, ad­dressed to the much revered (-n/uwTaT^) monk Esaias are published in the Deliciae Eruditorum of Giovanni Lami, who is disposed to identify the person addressed with Esaias of Cyprus. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol.xi. p. 395; Wharton, Appendix to Cave's Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 130, ed. Oxford, 1740-3; Lami, Deliciae Eruditorum^ vol. viii. pp. 236-279, Florence, 1739.)

2. Of egypt. Palladius in the biographical notices which make up what is usually termed his Lausiae History, mentions two brothers, Paesius (ncwfrrtos) and Esaias, the sons of a merchant, 2ira^8pOjtcos, by which some understand a Spanish merchant. Upon the death of their father they


determined to quit the world ; one of them distri­buted his whole property to the poor, the other expended his in the foundation of a monastic and charitable establishment. If the Orations men­tioned below are correctly ascribed to the Esaiaa of Palladius, the first oration (which in the Latin version begins "Qui mecum manere vultis, audite," &c.) enables us to identify him as the brother that founded the monastery. Rufinus in his Lives of the Fathers^ quoted by Tillemont, mentions an anec­dote of Esaias and some other persons of monastic character, visiting the confessor Anuph or Anub (who had suffered in the great persecution of Dio­cletian, but had survived that time) just before his death. If we suppose Esaias to have been com­paratively young, this account is not inconsistent with Cave's opinion, that Esaias flourished a.d. 370. Assemanni supposes that he lived about the close of the fourth century. He appears to have lived in Egypt.

There are dispersed through the European li­braries a number of works in MS. ascribed to Esaias, who is variously designated "Abbas," "Presbyter," " Ereinita," " Anachoreta." They are chiefly in Greek. Some of them have been published, either in the original or in a Latin version. Assemanni enumerates some Arabic and several Syriac works of Esaias, which, judging from their titles, are ver­sions in those tongues of the known works of this writer. It is not ascertained whether Esaias the writer is the Esaias mentioned by Palladius. Car­dinal Bellarmin, followed by the editors of the Bibliotheca Patrum, places the writer in the seventh century subsequent to the time of Palladius ; but the character of the works supports the opinion that they belong to the Egyptian monk.

(1.) Chapters on the ascetic and peaceful life

(K€<t>d\aia irepl dcrictf crews Kal ^ffvx^as)y published in Greek and Latin in the Tltesaurus Asceticus of Pierre Possin, pp. 31 5-325 ; 4to. Paris, 1 684. As some MSS. contain portions of this work in con­ nexion with other passages not contained in it, it is probable that the Chapters are incomplete. One MS. in the King's Library at Paris is described as " Esaiae Abbatis Capita Ascetica, in duos libros divisa, quorum uhusquisque praecepta centum com- plectitur." ,

(2.) Precepta seu Consilia posita tironibus, a Latin version of sixty-eight Short Precepts, pub­lished by Lucas Holstenius, in his Codex Regula-rum Monasticarum. (vol. i. p. 6. ed. Augsburg, 1759.)

(3.) Orationes. A Latin version of twenty-nine discourses of Esaias was published by Pietro Francesco Zini, with some ascetic writ­ings of Nilus and others, 8vo. Venice, 1574, and have been reprinted in the Bibliotheca Patrum. They are not all orations, but, in one or two in­stances at least, are collections of apophthegms or sayings. Some MSS. contain more than twenty-nine orations : one in the King's Library at Paris contains thirty, wanting the beginning of the first ; and one, mentioned by Harless, is said to contain thirty-one, differently arranged from those in the BibliotJteca Patrum.

(4.) Dubitatibnes in Visionem Ezechielis. A MS. in the Royal Library of the Esciirial in Spain, is described by Montfaucon (Bibliotfieca BiUiotlte-carum, p. 619) as containing Sermones et Dubita-tiones in Visionem Ezechielis^ by "Esaias Abbas." The Sermones or discourses are probably those men-

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