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them, and to ba¥& bees: bnried? m tire Bmmr near tfe rostra, were a stone figure of a lion marked his tomb. Others, however, believed that Romulus was buried there. (Festus, s. v. Niger Lapis; Dionys. i. 87; Hartung, Die Relig. d. Rom. vol. ii. p. 190.) [L. S.]
FAUSTUS, a tragic poet of the time of Juvenal (vii. 12).
FAUSTUS, an African bishop of the Mani-chaeans, who, according to St. Augustin, was a man of great natural shrewdness and persuasive eloquence, but altogether destitute of cultivation or learning. He published about A. d. 400 an attack upon the Catholic faith, a work known to us from the elaborate reply by the bishop of Hippo, Contra Faustum Manichaeum" extending to thirty-five books, arranged in such a manner that the arguments of the heretic are first stated in his own words, and then confuted. (See vol. viii. of the Benedictine edition of St. Augustine.) [W. R.]
FAUSTUS, surnamed rbibnsis (otherwise Regensis, or Regiensis) from the episcopal see over which he presided> was a native of Brittany, the contemporary and friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Having passed his youth in the seclusion of a cloister, he succeeded Maximus, first as abbot of Lerins, afterwards in a. d. 472, as bishop of Riez, in Provence, and died about a. d. 490, or, according to Tillemont, some years later. For a considerable period he was regarded as the head of the Semipelagians [cassianus], and, in consequence of the earnestness and success with which he advocated the doctrines of that sect, was stigmatised as a heretic by the Catholic followers of St. Augustin, while his zeal against the Arians excited the enmity of Euric, king of the Visigoths, by whom he was driven into exile about a. d. 481, and did not return until a. d. 484, after the death of his persecutor. Notwithstanding the heavy charges preferred against the orthodoxy of this prelate, it is certain that he enjoyed a wide reputation, and possessed great influence, while alive, and was worshipped as a saint after death, by the citizens of Riez, who erected a basilica to his memory, and long celebrated his festival on the ] 8th of January.
The works of Faustus have never been collected and edited with care, and hence the accounts given by different authorities vary considerably. The following list, if not absolutely complete, embraces every thing of importance :—
1* Professw Fidei, contra eos9 qui per solam Dei Vbluntatem olios dicunt ad Vitam attrahi^ olios in Mortem deprimi* (Bibl. Max. Pair. Lugdun. 1677, vol. viii. p. 523.)
2. De Gratia Dei et Humanae Mentis libero Arbitrio Libri II. (Bill. Max. Pair. Lugdun. vol. viii. p. 525.)
These two treatises, composed about A. D. 475, present a full and distinct developement of the sentiments of the author with regard to original sin, predestination, free will, election, and grace, and demonstrate that his views corresponded closely with those entertained by Cassianus.
3. Responsio ad Objecta quaedam de Ratione Fidei Catholicae ; an essay, as the title implies, on «ome points connected with the Arian controversy. It is included in the collection of ancient French ecclesiastical writers published by P. Pithou, 4to. 1586.
4. Sermones Sex ad Monachos., together with an
and exhortations^ all addressed, to the monks of Lerins, while he presided over tficir community. (Martene et Durand, Scriptor. et Monumentor. ampliss. Collectio, vol. ix. p. 142. fol. Paris, 1733 ; Brockie, Codex Regular urn, &c. Append, p. 469, fol. Aug. Vind. 1759; Bibl. Max* Pair. Lugdun. 1677. vol. viii. p. 545, 547; Basnage, TJiesaurus Monumentor. &c. vol. i., p. 350. fol. Amst. 1725.)
5. Homilia de S. Maximi Laudibus, erroneously included among the homilies ascribed to Eusebius Emesenus, who flourished under Constantius before the establishment of a monastery at Lerins. (Bibl. Magna Pair. Colon. Agripp. fol. 1618, vol. v. p. 1. No. 12.)
6. Epistolae. Nineteen are to be found in the third part of the fifth volume of the Bibl. Mag. Pair. Colon. Agripp. fol. 1618, and the most in teresting are contained in Bibl. Max. Pair. Lug- dun, vol. viii. p. 524, 548—554. See also Basnage, Thes. Mon. vol. i. p. 343. These letters are ad dressed to different persons, and treat of various points connected with speculative theology, and the heresies prevalent at that epoch. (Sidon. Apollin. Oarm. Euchar. ad Faustimi; Gennad. de Viris III. 85 ; Baronius, Anneal, vol. vi. ad ann. 490 ; Tille mont, vol.xvi. p. 433; Wiggers, de Joanne Cassiano, &c. Rostoch. 1824, 1825, and other historians of semipelagianism enumerated at the end of the ar ticle cassianus.) [W. R.]
FAUSTUS, A'NNIUS, a man of equestrian rank, and one of the informers (delatores) in the reign of Nero, was condemned by the senate in a. d. 69, on the accusation of Vibius Crispus. (Tac. Hist. ii. 10.)
FEBRIS, the goddess of fever, or rather the averter of fever. She had three sanctuaries at Rome, the most ancient and celebrated of which was on the Palatine ; the second was on the area, which was adorned with the monuments of Marius, and the third in the upper part of the vicus longus. In these sanctuaries amulets were dedicated which people had worn during a fever. (Val. Max. ii. 5.
6 ; Cic. de Leg. ii. 11; de Nat. Deor. iii. 25 ; Aelian, V. H. xii. 11). The worship of this divinity at Rome is sufficiently accounted for by the fact, that in ancient times the place was visited by fevers as much as at the present day. [L. S.]
FEBRUUS, an ancient Italian divinity, to whom the month of February was sacred, for in the latter half of that month great and general purifications and lustrations were celebrated, which were at the same time considered to produce fertility among men as well as beasts. Hence the month of February was also sacred to Juno, the goddess of marriage, and she was therefore surnamed Februata, or Februtis. (Fest. s. v. Febru-arius; Arnob. iii. 30.) The name Februus is connected with februare (to purify), and februae (purifications). (Varro, de L.L. vi. 13; Ov. Fast. ii. 31, &c.) Another feature in the character of this
, which is however intimately connected with the idea of purification, is, that he was also regarded as a god of the lower world, for th& festival of the dead (Feralia) was likewise celebrated in February (Macrob. Sat. i. 4, 13; Ov. Fast.ii. 535, &c.); and Anysius (ap. J. Lydum, de Mens. i. p. 68) states, that Februus in Etruscan signified the god of the lower world (Ka.Tax66vios). Hence Februus was identified with Pluto. When the