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FLAMMA.

2. C. flaminius, a son of No. 1, was quaestor of P. Scipio Africanus the Elder in Spain, b. c. 210. Fourteen years later, b. c. 196, he was cu-rule aedile, and distributed among the people a large quantity of'grain at a low price, which was furnished to him by the Sicilians as a mark of grati­tude and distinction towards his father and himself. In b.c. 193 he was elected praetor, aird obtained Hispania Citerior as his province. He took a fresh army with him, and was ordered by the senate to send the veterans back from Spain ; he was further authorised to raise soldiers in Spain, and Valerius Antias even related that he went to Sicily to enlist troops, and that on his way back he was thrown by a storm on the coast of Africa. Whether this is true or not cannot be ascertained ; but when he had properly reinforced himself, he carried on a successful war in Spain: he besieged and took the wealthy and fortified town of Litabrum, and made Corribilo, a Spanish chief, his prisoner. In b. c. 185 he obtained the consulship, together with M. Aemilius Lepidus, in opposition to whom he de­fended, at the beginning of the year, M. Fulvius ; for the senate assigned the Ligurians as the pro­vince of the two consuls, and Lepidus, dissatisfied, wanted to have the province, of which M. Fulvius had had the administration for the last two years. At last, however, C. Flaminius and Aemilius Lepi­dus marched into their province against the Ligu­rians, and Flaminius, after having gained several battles against the Triniates, a Ligurian tribe, re­duced them to submission, and deprived them of their arms. Hereupon he proceeded against the Apuani, another Ligurian tribe, who had invaded the territories of Pisa and Bononia. They also were subdued, and peace was thus restored in the north of Italy. But to prevent his troops from re­maining idle in their camp, he made them construct a road from Bononia to Arretium, while his col­league made another from Placentia to Ariminum, to join the Flaminian road. Strabo (v. p. 217), who confounds C. Flaminius, the father, with his son, states that the latter made the Flaminian road from Rome to Ariminum, and Lepidus from thence to Bononia and Aquileia. But it is highly impro­bable that the road was continued to Aquileia, be­fore this place became a Latin colony, i. e. before b. c. 181, on which occasion C. Flaminius was one of the triumvirs who conducted the colony thither. (Liv. xxvi. 47, 49, xxxiii. 42, xxxiv. 54, &c., xxxv. 2, 22, xxxviii. 42, &c., xxxix. 2, 55, xl. 34; Oros. iv. 20 ; Zonar. ix. 21 ; Val. Max. vi. 6. § 3.)

3. C. flaminius, was praetor in b c. 66, the year in which Cicero was invested with the same office. Some years before C. Flaminius had been curule aedile, and Cicero had defended D. Matri-nius before the tribunal of C. Flaminius. (Cic. pro Cluent. 45, 53.)

4. C. flaminius, a man of Arretium, whither he had probably gone with the colonists whom Sulla had established there. He is mentioned as one of the accomplices of Catiline. (Sallust, Cat. 28 and 36, where in one MS. he bears the cogno­ men Flamma.) [L. S.]

FLAMMA, prefect of the Caesarian fleet in

C. Curio's expedition to Africa, b.c. 47. On the

'news of the defeat on the Bagrada (Caes. B. 6. ii.

42), Flamma fled from the camp at Utica with his

division of the fleet without attempting to aid the

'fugitives from Curio's army. (Appian, B. C. ii.

46.) [W.-B.D]

FLAMMA, ANTO'NIUS, was banished at the beginning of Vespasian's reign, a. d. 71., for extortion and cruelty in his government of Cyrene under Nero. (Tac. Hist. iv. 45.) [W. B. D.]

FLAMMA, CALPU'RNIUS, a tribune of the soldiers, who, in the first Punic war, with 300 men, extricated a Roman consular army on its march to Camarina, in Sicily, from a defile similar to the Furcae Caudinae. After the legions were rescued, the body of Flamma was found under a heap of dead, and although covered with wounds, none of them were m<5rtal, and he survived and served the republic afterwards. The act is often mentioned by Roman writers, but there is great discrepancy as to its author. Cato (ap. Gell. iii. 7) calls him Q. Caedicius; Claudius Quadrigarius (zi.) Laberius or Valerius ; but Frontinus (Stratag. iv. 5.) says most named him Calpurnius Flamma. (Liv. Epit. xvii, xxii, 60; Plin. H. N. xxii. 6 ; Oros. iv. 8 ; Floras, ii. 2 ; Aur. Vict. de Vir. III. xxxix.; Senec. Epist. 82.) [W. B. D.]

FLAMMA, T. FLAMI'NIUS, a debtor of L. Tullius Montanus, who had become surety for him to L. Munatius Plancus. The brother-in-law of Montanus had written to Cicero to beg Plancus to grant indulgence or delay (ad Att. xii. 52), and. Cicero frequently requests Atticus (xii. 52 ; xiv. 16, 17; xv. 2) to bring Flamma to a settlement. Writing to his freedman Tiro, Cicero hints at stronger measures, and desires him to get part of the debt by the first day of January, b. c. 44. Flamma may have been a freedman of the Fla- minia gens. [W. B. D.]

FLAMMA, L. VOLU'MNIUS, with the ag­nomen VIOLENS, was consul with App. Claudius Caecus for the first time b. c. 307. He was sent with a consular army against the Sallentines, an Apulian or Japygian people, who dwelt in the heel of Italy, and whom the progress of the Samnite war had now drawn within the enmity of Rome. According to Livy (ix. 42), Flamma was pros­perous in the field, took several towns by storm, and made himself very popular with the soldiers by his liberal distribution of the booty. These suc­cesses are, however, very problematical; since the name of Flamma does not appear in the Fasti Triumphales, and one of the annalists, Piso, omitted this consulship altogether (Liv. ix. 44). But there is no reason to doubt that Flamma was consul with App. Claudius in b. c. 296. It was the most critical period of the second Samnite war. Flamma was at first stationed on the frontiers of Samnium, but on the appearance of a Samnite army in the heart of Etruria, he was ordered to the relief of his colleague. Claudius at first resented, but on the representation of his principal officers, finally ac­cepted the aid of Flamma. There was, however, no harmony between them; and as soon as their joint armies had repelled the enemy, Flamma re­turned by forced marches into Campania. The Samnites had plundered the Falernian plain, and were returning with their spoils and captives, when Flamma intercepted them on the banks of the Liris, anvd rendered their expedition fruitless. For the relief thus afforded to Rome a thanksgiving was ordered in the name of the consul. Flamma presided at the next consular comitia, and at his re­commendation the people chose Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus consul for the ensuing year. Flamma re­tained his own command as proconsul for the same period, the senate and the people both concurring in

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