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the autumn of the year following, when Aemilius Paullus .went on an excursion into Greece, he left the command of the Roman camp in the hands of his friend ; but the latter must soon after have returned to Rome, for he was elected consul for the year b. c. 166'. In his consulship he carried on a successful war against the Ligurians, who were reduced to submission. On his return to Rome he was honoured with a triumph. C. Sulpicius Gallus , appears to have been one of the most extraordinary men of his time ; Cicero in several passages speaks of him in terms of the highest praise: he had a more perfect knowledge of Greek than any man of his time, he was a distinguished orator, and altogether a person of an elegant and refined mind. His know­ledge of astronomy, which is frequently mentioned by Cicero, is attested by his predicting, with accuracy, the eclipse of the moon, which was visible in Greece. (Liv. xliii. 2, 13, 16, 17, xliv. 37, xlv. 27, 44, Epit. 46; Plin. H. N. ii. 12; J. Obseq. 71; Didasc. of Terent. Andria; Cic.Brut. 20, 23, de Re Piibl. i. 14, 15, de Senect. 14, de Amic. 27, de Of. i. 6.)

3. Q. sulpicius gallus, a son of No. 2, died at an early age, and his death was borne by his father with great fortitude. (Cic. de Orat. i. 53, Brut. 23, deAmic. 2, 6, ad Fam. iv. 6.)

4. C. gallus (some read Gallius), a Roman senator mentioned by Cicero (in Verr. iii. 65), but it is uncertain whether he belonged to the Sufpicia or Aquillia gens. [L. S.]

GALLUS, SURDI'NIUS, a wealthy Roman of the time of the emperor Claudius. When Clau­dius, in A. d. 46, removed a number of persons from the senate, because they had not sufficient means to keep up the senatorial dignity, Surdinius Gallus was preparing to go and settle at Carthage, but Claudius called him back, saying that he would tie him with golden chains; and Surdinius was made a senator. (Dion Cass. Ix. 29.) [L. S.]

GALLUS, TISIE'NUS, a Roman general be­ longing to the party of L. Antonius and Fulvia in their war with Octavianus in b.c. 41. When Octavianus made an attack upon Nursia he was repulsed by Tisienus, who had the command in the place. In B. c. 36 he joined Sex. Pompeius in Sicily with reinforcements ; but after the defeat of Sextus, he surrendered, with his army, to Octavi­ anus. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 13, xlix. 8, 10 ;.Appian, B.C. iv. 32, v. 104, 117, 121.) [L. S.]

GALLUS, TREBONIA'NUS, Roman em­peror, a. d. 251-254.

C. vibius trebonianus gallus, whose origin and early history are altogether unknown, held a high command in the army which marched to op­pose the first great inroad of the Goths (a.d. 251), and, according to Zosimus, contributed by his treachery to the disastrous issue of the battle, which proved fatal to Decius and Herennius. [DE-cius; herennius etruscus.] The empire being thus suddenly left without a ruler, Gallus was selected, towards the end of November, a. d. 251, by both the senate and the soldiers, as the person best qualified to mount the vacant throne, and Hostilianus, the surviving son of the late prince, was nominated his colleague. The first care of the new ruler was to conclude a peace with the victorious barbarians in terms of which they agreed to retire beyond the frontier, on condition of retaining their plunder and their captives and of receiving a fixed annual tribute as the price of



future forbearance. The disgrace inflicted on the Roman name by this shameful concession excited the indignation of the whole nation, while the suicidal folly of the humiliating compact was soon manifested. For scarcely had the provinces en­joyed one short year of tranquillity, when fresh hordes from the north and east, tempted by the golden harvest which their brethren had reaped, poured down upon the Illyrian border. They were, however, driven back with great loss by Aemilia-nus, general of the legions in Moesia, whose tri­umphant troops forthwith proclaimed him Augus­tus. Gallus, upon receiving intelligence of this unexpected peril, despatched Valerianus [¥ale-rianus] to quell the rebellion ; but while the latter was employed in collecting an army from Germany and Gaul, Aemilianus, pressing forwards, had already entered Italy. Compelled by the ur­gency of the danger, Gallus, accompanied by Volu-sianus [volusianus], whom he had previously invested with all the imperial dignities, marched forth to meet his rival, but before any collision had taken place between the opposing armies, both father and son were slain by their own soldiers, who despaired of success under such leaders. The precise date of this event has given rise to controversy among chronologers, some of whom fix upon the year 253, and others upon that of 254.

The name of Gallus is associated with nothing but cowardice and dishonour. The hatred and contempt attached to his memory may have led to the reports chronicled by Zosimus and Zonaras that the defeat of Decius was caused by his perfid}r, and .that he subsequently became the murderer of Hostilianus [hostilianus]. In addition to the misery produced by the inroads of the barbarians during this reign, great dismay arose from the rapid progress of a deadly pestilence which, com­mencing in Ethiopia, spread over every region of the empire, and continued its ravages for the space of fifteen years. (Zonar. xii. 20, 21 ; Zosim. i, 23—28 ; Victor, de Caes. 30, Epit. 30 ; Eutrop. ix. 5 ; Jomandes, de Reb. Goth. 19.) [ W. R.]

GALLUS, P. VOLU'MNIUS, with the agno­men Amintinus, was consul in b.c. 461 with Ser Sulpicius Camerinus. (Liv. iii. 10; Dionys, x. 1; Diod. xi. 84; Yal. Max, i. 6. § 5; Plin. //. N. ii.

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GALVIA, CRISPINILLA. [crispinilla.] GAME'LII (ya^Xioi Seal), that is, the divini­ ties protecting and presiding over marriage. (Pok lux, i. 24; Maxim. Tyr. xxvi. 6.) Plutarch (Quaest. Rom. 2) says, that those who married required (the protection of) five divinities, viz, Zeus, Hera, Aphrodite, Peitho, and Artemis. (Comp. Dion Chrys. Orat. vii. p, 568.) But these are not all, for the Moerae too are called freai 70-? fjrf\iai (Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn, in Dian, 23, in Del, 292, 297), and, in fact, nearly all the gods might be regarded as the protectors of marriage, though the five mentioned by Plutarch perhaps more particularly than others. The Athenians called their month of Gamelion after these divini­ ties. Respecting the festival of the Gamelia see Diet, of Ant. s. v. [L. S.]

GANNASCUS, a chief of the Chauci, a Suevian race settled between the Weser (Visurgis) and the Elbe ( Albis). Gannascus himself, however, was of Batavian origin, and had long served Rome among the Batavian auxiliaries. He had deserted in A. p.

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