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the name Genius itself is Latin (it is connected with gen-itus, yl-yv-opai, and equivalent in meaning to generator or father ; see August, de Civ. Dei, vii. 13). The genii of the Romans are frequently confounded with the Manes, Lares, and Penates (Censorin. 3,); and they have indeed one great feature in common, viz. that of .protecting mortals; but there seems to be this essential difference, that the genii are the powers which produce life (dii genitales\ and accompany man through it as his second or spiritual self, whereas the other powers do not begin to exercise their influence till life, the work of the genii, has commenced. The genii were further not confined to man, but every living being, animal as well as man, and every place^ had its genius. (Paul. Diac. p. 71; Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 302.) Every human being at his birth obtains (sortttur) a genius. Horace (Epist. H. 2. 187) describes this genius as vuUu mutabilis., whence we may infer either that he conceived the genius as friendly towards one person, and as hostile towards another, or that he manifested himself to the same person in different ways at different times, i. e. sometimes as a good, and sometimes as an evil genius. The latter supposition is confirmed by the statement of Servius (ad Aen. vi. 743), that at our birth we obtain two genii, one leading us to good, and the other to" evil, and that at our death by their influence we either rise to a higher state of existence, or are condemned to a lower one. The spirit who appeared to Cassius, saying, " We shall meet again at Philippi," is expressly called his evil spirit, KaKobai^uv. (Val. Max. i, 7. § 7 ; Plut. Brut. 36.) Women called their genius Juno (Senec. Ep'ist. 110; Tibull. iv. 6. 1); and as we may thus regard the genii of men as being in some way connected with Jupiter, it would follow that the genii were emanations from the great gods. Every man at Rome had his own genius, whom he worshipped as sanctus at sanctissi-mus deus, especially on his birthday, with libations of wine, incense, and garlands of flowers. (Tibull. li. 2. 5 ; Ov. TrisL iii. 13. 18, v. 5, 11 ; Senec. Epist. 114; Horat. Carm. iv. 11. 7.) The bridal bed was sacred to the genius, on account of his connection with generation, and the bed itself was called lectus genialis. On other merry occasions, also, sacrifices were offered to the genius, and to indulge in merriment was not unfrequently expressed by genio indulgere, genium curare or pla-care. The whole body of the Roman people had its own genius, who is often seen represented on coins of Hadrian and Trajan. (Arnob. ii. 67; Serv. ad Aen. vi. 603; Liv. xxx. 12; Cic. pro Cluent. 5.) He was worshipped on sad as well as joyous occasions; thus, e. g. sacrifices (ma-jores hostiae caesae quinque, Liv. xxi. 62) were offered to him at the beginning of the second year of the Hannibalian Avar. It was observed above that, according to Servius (comp. ad Aen. v. 95), every place had its genius, and he adds, that such a local genius, when he made himself visible, appeared in the form of a serpent, that is, the symbol of renovation or of new life. The genii are usually represented in works of art as winged beings, and on Roman monuments a genius commonly appears as a youth dressed in the toga, with a patera or cornucopia in his hands, and his head covered; the genius of a place appears in the form of a serpent eating fruit placed before him. (Hartung, Die Relig. der Rom. i. p. 32, &c.;
Schomann, de Diis Manibus, Laribus^ et Geniis, Greifswald, 1840.) [L. S.]
GENNADIUS, a presbyter of Marseilles, who flourished at the close of the fifth century, is known to us as the author of a work De Viris II-lustribus^ containing one hundred short lives of ecclesiastical writers from a. n. 392 to about a. d. 495, thus forming a continuation of the tract by Jerome which bears the same title. The last notice, devoted to the compiler himself, embraces all that is known with regard to his history and compositions : "Ego Gennadius, Massiliae presbyter, scripsi adversus omnes haereses libros octo, et adversus Nestorium libros sex, adversus Pelagium libros tres, et tractatus de mille annis et de Apo-calypsi beati Johamus, et hoc opus, et epistolam de fide mea misi ad beatum Gelasium, urbis Komae episcopum." Gelasius died A. d. 496.
Of the writings here enumerated, none have been preserved, with the exception of the Biographical Sketches and the Epistola de Fide me.a^ or, as it is sometimes headed, Libellus de Ecclesiasiicis DogmatibuS) which was at one time ascribed to St. Augustin. Notwithstanding the pretensions put forth by Gennadius himself as a champion of orthodoxy, expressions have been detected in both of the above pieces which indicate a decided leaning towards Semipelagianism. On the other hand, it has been maintained that the whole of these passages are interpolations, since the most obnoxious are altogether omitted in the two oldest MSS. of the De Viris Illustribus now extant, those of Lucca and Verona. The preliminary remarks 'upon Jerome are also, in all probability, the production of a later hand.
The De Viris Illustrious was published in a volume containing the Catalogue of Jerome, along with those of Isidorus, Honorius, &c., by Su£ fridus, 8vo. Colon., 1580 ; with the notes o: Miraeus, fol. Antw. 1639 ; with the notes of Mi-raeus and E. S. Cyprianus, 4to., Helmst., 1700 by J. A. Fabricius, in his Biblioifieca Ecclesiastica fol., Hamb., 1718, and is included in most edition,-of the collected works of Jerome.
The Libellus de Ecdesiastids Dogmatibus will b< found in the Benedictine edition of St. Augustin vol. viii. Append, p. 75. and was published sepa rately by Elmenhorst, 4to., Hamburg, 1614. (Se the historians of Semipelagianism referred to at th end of the article cassianus.) [W. R.]
GFNNADIUS (Tempos), the name of tw Greek prelates, both bishops or patriarchs of Con stantinople.
L The earlier of-the two was a presbyter of th Church of Constantinople, and became bishop of tha see, a. d. 459, on the decease of Anatolius [anatc Lius]. He was one of those who pressed the emperc Leo I., theThracian, to punish Timothy Aelurus (c the Cat), who had occupied the see of Alexandra on the murder of Proterius, and his interventio was so far successful that Timothy was banishec A. d. 460. He also opposed Peter Gnapheus (( the Fuller) who, under the patronage of Zeno, soi in-law of the emperor, and general of the Eastei provinces, had expelled Martyrius from the see i Antioch, and occupied his place. Gennadius h nourably received Martyrius, who went to Constai tinople, and succeeded in procuring the banisl ment of Peter, a. d. 464. Gennadius died, a. 471, and was succeeded by Acacius [AcAcit1 No. 4]. Theodore Anagnostes (or the Reade