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GITIADAS.

called the Brazen House, and hence the goddess received the surname of Xa\KooiKos. Gitiadas made for this temple the statue of the goddess and other works in bronze (most, if not all of which, seem to have been bas-reliefs on the walls), repre­senting the labours of Heracles, the exploits of the Tyndarids, Hephaestus releasing his mother from her chains, the Nymphs arming Perseus for his expedition against Medusa, the Birth of Athena, and Amphitrite and Poseidon. The artist also served the goddess as a poet, for he composed a hymn to her, besides other poems, in the Doric dialect. (Paus. iii. 17. § 3.)

Gitiadas also made two of the three bronze tri­pods -at Amyclae. The third was the work of Gallon, the Aeginetan. The two by Gitiadas were supported by statues of Aphrodite and Artemis (Paus. iii. 18. $ 5). This last passage has been misinterpreted in two different ways, namely, as if it placed the date of Gitiadas, on the one hand, as high as the first or second Messenian War, or, on the other hand, as low as the end of the Pelopon-nesian War. The true meaning of Pausanias has been explained by Muller (Aeginet. p. 100), and Thiersch (JEpocJien, p. 146, &c., AnmerJc. p. 40, &c.; comp. Hirt, in the Amalthea, vol. i. p. 260). The passage may be thus translated :—" But, as to the things worth seeing at Amyclae, there is upon a pillar a pentathlete, by name Aenetus. * * Of him, then, there is an image and bronze tri­pods. (But as for the other more ancient tripods, they are said to be a tithe* from the war against the Messenians.) Under the first tripod stands an image of Aphrodite, but Artemis under the second : both the tripods themselves and what is wrought upon them are the work of Gitiadas: but the third is the work of the Aeginetan Gallon: but under this stands an image of Cora, the daughter of De-meter. But Aristander, the Parian, and Polyclei­tus, the Argive, made [other tripods] ; the former a woman holding a lyre, namely, Sparta ; but Polycleitus made Aphrodite, surnamed ' the Amy-claean.' But these last tripods exceed the others in size, and were dedicated from the spoils of the victory at Aegospotami." That is, there were at Amyclae three sets of tripods, first, those made from the spoils of the (first or second) Messenian War, which Pausanias only mentions parenthe­tically ; then, those which, with the statue, formed the monument of the Olympic victor Aenetus, made by Gitiadas and Gallon; and, lastly, those made by Aristander and Polycleitus out of the spoils of the battle of Aegospotami. But in another passage (iv. 14. $ 2), Pausanias appears to say distinctly that the tripods at Amyclae, which were adorned with the images of Aphrodite, Artemis, and Cora, were dedicated by the Lacedaemonians at the end of the first Messenian War. There can, however, be little doubt that the words from 'A.typoo'iTrjs to evravQa, are the gloss (which afterwards crept into the text) of some commentator who misunder­stood the former passage. Another argument that Gitiadas cannot be placed nearly so high as the first Messenian War is derived from the statement of Pausanias (iii. 17. § 6) that the Zeus of Learchus of Rhegium was the oldest work in bronze at Sparta.

These difficulties being removed, it is clear from

* According to the reading of Jacobs and Bek-ker, dcKar??j> for 5c/c«.

GLABRIO,

the way in which Gitiadas is mentioned with Gal­lon by Pausanias that he Was his contemporary, and he therefore flourished about b. c. 516. [gallon.] He is the last Spartan artist of any distinction.

His teacher is unknown; but, as he flourished in the next generation but one after Dipoenus and Scyllis, he may have learnt his art from one of their pupils ; perhaps from Theodoras of Samos, who lived a considerable time at Sparta. (Hirt. Gescti. d. BUd. Kennt. p. 108.) [P. S.]

GLABER, P. VARI'NIUS, praetor, b. c. 73. He was among the first of the Roman generals sent against the gladiator Spartacus [spartacus], and both in his own movements and in those of his lieutenants he was singularly unfortunate. Spar­ tacus repeatedly defeated Glaber, and once captured his war-horse and his lictors. But, although com­ missioned by the senate to put down the insurrec­ tion of the slaves, Glaber had only a hastily levied army to oppose to Spartacus, and a sickly autumn thinned its ranks. (Appian, B.C.i. 116 ; Plut. Crass. 9 ; Frontin. Strat. i. 5. § 22.) Floras (iii. 20) mentions a Clodius Glaber ; compare, however, Plutarch (1. c.). [W. B. D.]

GLABRIO, a family name of the Acilia Gens at Rome. The Acilii Glabriones were plebeian (Liv. xxxv. 10, 24, xxxvi. 57), and first appear on the consular Fasti in the year b. c. 191, from which time the name frequently occurs to a late period of the empire. The last of the Glabriones who held the consulate was Anicius Acilius Glabrio Faustus, one of the supplementary consuls in a. ». 438.

1. C. acilius glabrjo, was quaestor in b. c> 203, and tribune of the plebs in 197, when he brought forward a rogation for planting five colo­nies on the western coast of Italy, in order pro­bably to repair the depopulation caused by the war with Hannibal. (Liv. xxxii. 29.) Glabrio acted as interpreter to the Athenian embassy in b. c. 155, when the three philosophers, Carneades, Dio­genes, and Critolaus came as envoys to Rome. [carneades.] (Gell. vii. 14 ; Plut. Cat. Maj. 22; Macrob. Sat. i. 5.) Glabrio was at this time ad­vanced in years, of senatorian rank ; and Plutarch calls him a distinguished senator (/. c.). He wrote in Greek a history of Rome from the earliest period to his own times. This work is cited by Dionysius (iii. 77), by Cicero (de Off. iii. 32), by Plutarch (Romul. 21), and by the author de Orig. Gent. Rom. (c. 10. § 2). It was translated into Latin by one Claudius, and his version is cited by Livy, under the titles of Annales Aciliani (xxv. 39) and Libri Aciliani (xxxv. 14). We perhaps read a passage borrowed or adapted from the work of Gla­brio in Appian (Syriac. 10). Atilius Fortunati-anus (de Art. Metric, p. 2680, ed. Putsch) ascribes the Saturnian verse

" Fundit, fugat, prosternit maximas legiones,"

to an Acilius Glabrio. (Krause, Vet. Hist. Rom. Fragm. p. 84.)

2. M'. acilius, C. f. L. n. glabrio, was tri­bune of the plebs in b. c. 201, when he opposed the claim of Cn. Corn. Lentulus, one of the consuls of that year, to the province of Africa, which a unanimous vote of the tribes had already decreed to P. Scipio Africanus I. (Liv. xxx. 40.) In the following year Glabrio was appointed commissioner of sacred rites (decemvir sacrorum) in the room of M. Aurelius Gotta, deceased (xxxi. 50). He was praetor in b.c. 196, having presided at the Pie

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