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the archbishops of Milan mentioned by Ennodius, and Gibbon, though with some hesitation, identifies the archbishop with the ex-emperor, and suggests that his promotion to Milan was the reward of his participation in the death of Nepos ; but we much doubt whether the two were identical. (Marcelli- nus, Marius Aventicensis and Cassiodorus, Chron.; Jornand. de Reb. Get. c. 56, de Regn. Succ. p. 58, ed. Lindenbrogii, Hamb. 1611 ; Malchus and Candidus, apud Phot. Bibl. codd. 78, 79; Evagr. H. E. ii. 16 ; Ennod. Epiphan. Ticin. Vita and Carmina apud Sirmond. Opera Varia, vol. i. ; Excerpta Ignoti Auctoris, subjoined to Amm. Marc., by Valesius and other editors ; Eckhel; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. vi. ; Gibbon, c. 36.) [J.C.M.]

GLYCIS, JOANNES ('Iwe^s 6 TAj/tw), or perhaps also GLYCAS (rAnwas), patriarch of Constantinople from 1316 to 1320, was a scholar of great learning, and renowned for his oratorical attainments. He was the teacher of Nicephorus Gregoras, the historian, who speaks of him with great praise in several passages of his History. Glycis resigned his office, worn out by age, sick­ness, and labour, and retired to the convent of Cy-notissa, living there upon a small sum of money, which was all that he had reserved for himself out of his extensive property.

Glycis wrote in a superior style, and endeavoured to purify the Greek language from those barbarisms with which it was then crowded. He was not only distinguished as a scholar and divine, but also as a statesman. The emperor sent him as ambas­sador to Rome, and Glycis wrote an account of his journey thither, of which Nicephorus Gregoras speaks with great praise, but which is unfortunately lost. His other works are, a Greek grammar, ex­tant in MS. in various libraries, entitled Tlcpi 'Op-Q6rt\ros *2wTd£€ws. He has also left some minor productions; such as 'H irapairrjo-is rov narpiap-X^fou, in which he explains the motives that in­duced him to resign the patriarchate, and 'Yiro-(.wqa-riKov els tov /B.acriAea tov ciyiov, an admoni­tion to the holy emperor, viz. Michael Palaeologus, extant in MSS.5 in the Royal Library in Paris. (Wharton's Appendix to Cave's Hist. Lit. p. 21, ad an. 1316; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. xi. p. 520 ; Jahn, Anecd. Graeca, Praef. p. 1.) [W. P.]

GLYCON (t\vkg>v). 1. A lyric poet, from whom the Glyconean metre took its name. No­thing remains of him but three lines, which are quoted by Hephaestion in illustration of the metre. (Ench. p. 33.)

2. The author of an epigram in the Greek An­thology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 278 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. ii. p. 254, vol. xiii. p. 898.)

3. Another name for the philosopher lycon. (Diog. Laert. v. 65.)

4. Of Pergamus, a celebrated athlete, on whom Antipater of Thessalonica wrote an epitaph. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 126, No. 68 j Anth. Palat. x. 124 ; Horat. Ep. i. 1, 30.)

5. A grammarian, ridiculed in an epigram by Apollinaris. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 283, Anth. Palat. xi. 399.)

6. Spiridion, or Scyridicus, a rhetorician men­ tioned by Quintilian (Inst. vi. 1. § 41), and fre­ quently by Seneca. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 122, vol. vi. p. 130.) [P. S.j

GLYCON (TAifowi/). 1. An Athenian sculptor, known to us by his magnificent colossal marble


statue of Heracles, which is commonly called the " Farnese Hercules." It was found in the baths of Caracalla, and, after adorning the Farnese palace for some time, it was removed, with the other works of art belonging to that palace, to the royal museum at Naples : it represents the hero resting on his club, after one of his labours. The swollen muscles admirably express repose after severe ex­ertion. The right hand, which holds the golden apples, is modern : the legs also were restored by Gulielmo dellaPorta, but the original legs were dis­covered and replaced in 1787. The name of the artist is carved on the rock, which forms the main support of the statue^ as follows : —



Though no ancient writer mentions Glycon, there can be no doubt that he lived in the period between Lysippus and the early Roman emperors. The form of the Omega, in his name, which was not used in inscriptions till shortly before the Christian era, fixes his age more definitely, for there is no reason to doubt the genuineness of the inscription. The silence of Pliny suggests a doubt whether Glycon did not live even later than the reign of Titus*

At all events, it seems clear that the original type of the " Hercules Farnese " was the Heracles of Lysippus, of which there are several other imi­tations, but none equal to the Farnese. One of the most remarkable is the Hercules of the Pitti palace, inscribed ATSmnOT EPFON, but this in­scription is without doubt a forgery, though pro­bably an ancient one. (Winckelmann, Geschichte d. Kunst, b. x. c. 3, § 18 ; Meyer, Kunstgeschichte, vol. iii. pp. 58 — 61 ; Muller, Arch'dol. d. Kunst^ § 129, n. 2. § 160, n. 5 ; Mus. Borbon. vol. iii. pi. 23, 24 ; Muller, Denkmal. d. Alt. Kunst, vol. i. pi. xxxviii.)

The only other remaining work of Glycon is a base in the Biscari museum at Catania, inscribed :


(Raoul-Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 75.)

2. The engraver of a gem in the royal library at Paris. (Clarac, Description des . Antiques du Musie Royal, p. 420.) [P. S.]

GLYCON (rAifow*'), called in some editions of Cicero Glaiicon, the physician to the consul, C. Vi-bius Pansa, who upon his death, after the battle of Mutina, April, b. c. 43, was thrown into prison by Torquatus, Pansa's quaestor, upon a suspicion of having poisoned his wounds. (Sueton. Aug. 1 1 ; comp. Tac. Ann. i. 10.) This accusation, however, seems to have been unfounded, as there is extant a letter from M. Brutus to Cicero, in which he0 ear­nestly begs him to procure his liberation, and to protect him from injury, as being a worthy man, who suffered as great a loss as any one by Pansa's death, and who, even if this had not been the case, would never have allowed himself to be persuaded to commit such a crime. (Cic. ad Brut. 6.) He is perhaps the same person who is quoted by Scribonius Largus. (De Compos. Medicam. c. 206.) [W. A. G.]

GNAEUS, or CNEIUS (IVa?os), an engraver of gems, contemporary with Dioscorides, in the time of Augustus. Several beautiful gems are inscribed with his name. (Mus. Florent. vol. ii. tab. 7 ;

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