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GORGUS.

poems. (Max. Tyr. Diss. xxiv. 9, vol. i. p* 478, ed. Reiske.) On the relations of Sappho to her female contemporaries, see, besides the dissertation just quoted, Muller, Hist, of the 'Lit. of Anc. Greece^ vol. i. p. 177. ' [P. S.]

GORGO. [cleomenes, p. 793, a.]

GORGON (Topyav), the author of an historical work Hepl t&v *v 'PoS^> bvaiQv, and of Scholia on Pindar. (Athen. xv. p. 696-697 ; Hesych. s. v. 'ETTiTroA/cuos, Karap^airrirris ; Schol. ad Pind. OL vii. ; Fabric. BihL Graeo. vol. ii. p. 65 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 444, ed. Westermann.) [P. S.J

GORGONIUS. [gargonius.]

GORGOPAS (ropywTras), a Spartan, acted as vice-admiral under Hierax and Antalcidas succes­sively, in b. c. 388. When Hierax sailed to Rhodes to carry on the war there, he left Gorgopas with twelve ships at Aegina, to act against the Athenians, who, under Pamphilus, had possessed themselves of a fort in the island, and who were soon reduced to such distress, that a powerful squadron of ships was despatched from Athens to convey them home. Gorgopas and the Aeginetan privateers now renewing their attacks on the Athe­nian coast, eunomus was sent out to act against them. Meanwhile, Antalcidas superseded Hierax in the command of the fleet, and being entrusted also with a mission to the Persian court, was es­corted by Gorgopas as far as Ephesus. Gorgopas, returning hence to Aegina, fell in with the squadron of Eunomus, and succeeded in capturing four of his triremes off Zoster in Attica. [See Vol. II. p. 95, a.] Soon after this, however, Chabrias landed in Aegina^ on his way to Cyprus to aid Evagoras against the Persians, and defeated the Spartans by means of an ambuscade, Gorgopas being slain in the battle. (Xen. Hell. v. 1. §§ 1—12; Polyaen. iii. 10 ; Dem. c. Lept. p. 479, ad fin.) [E. E.]

GORGUS (Topyos). 1. Son of the Messenian hero, Aristomenes, who betrothed him in marriage to the maiden by whose aid he had himself escaped when captured by a body of Cretan bowmen, mer­cenaries of Sparta. [See Vol. I. p. 308.] Gorgus is mentioned by Pausanias as righting bravely by his father's side in the last desperate struggle, when Eira had been surprised by the Spartans. Soon after this Aristomenes declined to take the command of the Messenians, who wished to mi­grate to another country, and named Gorgus and Manticlus, son of the seer Theoclus, as their lead­ers. Gorgus proposed to take possession of the island of Zacynthus, while Manticlus was in favour of a settlement in Sardinia. Neither of these courses, however, was adopted, and Rhegium was fixed upon as the new home of the exiles. (Paus. iv. 19, 21, 23 ; Muller, Dor. i. 7. § 10 ; comp. anaxilaus.)

2. King, of Salamis, in Cyprus, was son of Cher-sis, and great-grandson of Evelthon, the contem­porary of Arcesilaus III. of Gyrene. His brother Onesilus, having long urged him in vain to revolt from the Persian king, at length drove him from the city, and, usurping the throne, set up the stand­ard of rebellion with the lonians in b. c. 499. Gorgus was restored to his kingdom in the next year on the reduction of the Cyprians and the death of Onesilus in battle. He joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and his brother Philaon was taken prisoner by the Greeks in the first of the three battles at Artemisium in b. c. 480. (He­rod, v. 104, 115, vii. 98, viii. 11 ; Larcher ad

GRACCHANUS.

Herod, v. 104 ; Clinton, F. H. sub anriis 499, 498, vol. ii. App. 5.)

3. A Messenian, son of Eucletus, was distin­ guished for rank, wealth, and success in gymnastic contests: moreover, unlike most athletes (says Po- lybius), he proved himself wise and skilful as a statesman. In b. c. 218 he was sent as ambassador to Philip V. of Macedon, then besieging Palus, in Cephallenia, to ask him to come to the aid of Mes- senia against Lycurgus, king of Lacedaemon. This request was supported by the traitor Leontius for his own purposes ; but Philip preferred listening to the recommendation of the Acarnanians to in­ vade Aetolia, and ordered Eperatus, the Achaean general, to carry assistance to the Messenians. (Paus. vi. 14 ; Polyb.v. 5, vii. 10 ; Suid. s. v. Top* yos.) [E. E]

GORTYS (Toprvs). 1. A son of Stymphelus, and founder of the Arcadian town of Gortys. (Paus. viii. 4. § 5.)

2. A son of Tegeates and Maera, who, according to an Arcadian tradition, built the town of Gor-tyn, in Crete. The Cretans regarded him as a son of Rhadamanthys. (Paus. viii. 53. § 2.) [L. S.]

GOTARZES. [arsaces XX. XXI.]

GRACCHANUS, M. JU'NIUS, assumed his cognomen on account of his friendship with C. Gracchus. (Plin. H.N. xxxiii. 2.) He wrote a work, De Potestatibus^ which gave an account of the Roman constitution and magistracies from the time of the kings. It stated upon what occasions new offices were introduced, and what changes were made in the duties of the old ones. At least, from the fragments that remain, it may be inferred with probability that such were its contents. It was addressed to T. Pomponius Atticus, the father of Cicero's friend. Atticus, the father, was the sodalis of M. Gracchanus. (Cic. de Leg. ii. 20.) It is likely that they were associates in some official college.

Junius Gracchanus is cited by Censorinus {De Die Nat. c. 20), Macrobius (Sat. i. 13), Pliny (H. N. xxxiii. 2), and Varro (De L. L. iv. 7, iv. 8, v. 4, v. 9). Bertrandus (De Jurisp. ii. 1) thinks that the plebiscitum in Festus (s. v. Publica Pon-dera) is taken from Gracchanus, since the name Junius is mentioned in the imperfect passage pre­ceding the plebiscitum.

The seventh book of the treatise De Potestatibus is cited by Ulpian (Dig. ]. tit. 13, pr.), and the same passage is also cited by Joannes Lydus (De Mag. i. 24), but Lydus does not cite Gracchanus from the original work, which, as he says in his Prooemium, was no longer extant when he wrote. Nay, he appears to cite Gracchanus rather from the fragment of Ulpian in the Digest than from the original work of Ulpian, and he seems to attribute to Gracchanus part of that which is the later ad­dition of Ulpian.

Pomponius, in the title of the Digest, De Qrigine. Juris (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2), treats of magistrates, and what he says of the office of quaestor seems to be partly borrowed from Gracchanus. Hence, it may be not unnaturally presumed that he has bor­rowed other materials from the same source. It is remarkable, that two passages which appear in the Digest in an extract from the Enchiridion of Pom­ponius, are cited by Lydus (i. 26, i. 34) from the work of Gaius, Ad Legem XII. Tabularum. Jo­annes Lydus is an inaccurate writer, of small ability, and it is not unlikely that, in translating

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