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populace of the city became discontented ; but the Carthaginian governors contrived to send tidings of their distress to Hannibal, who hastened to their relief out of Lucania. But though Hanno and Bostar seconded his efforts, by a vigorous sally from the city against the Roman camp, while Hannibal attacked it from without, all their exertions were in vain ; and the daring march of "Hannibal upon Rome itself having proved equally ineffectual in compelling the consuls to dislodge their troops from before Capua, the fall of that city became inevitable. Under these circumstances, the Campanians endeavoured to purchase forgiveness, by surrendering into the hands of the Romans the Carthaginian garrison, with its two commanders, b.c. 211. (Liv. xxv. 15, xxvi. 5, 12; Appian, Annib. 36—43.) Appian (I. c.) carefully distinguishes this Hanno from the son of Bomilcar [No. 16], with whom he might have been easily confounded: the latter is distinctly mentioned as commanding in Lucania after the siege of Capua had commenced.
20. A Carthaginian general, who was sent in b. c. 208 to succeed Hasdrubal, the soil of Barca, in Spain, when that general crossed the Pyrenees, on his march to Italy. Hanno united his forces with those of Mago in 'Celtiberia, and the two armies were encamped near each other, when they were attacked by Scipio's lieutenant, Silanus, and totally routed. Hanno fell into the hands of the enemy, and was sent by Scipio as a prisoner to Rome. (Liv. xxviii. 1, 2, 4.)
21. An officer under Mago in Spain. When Mago, after the great defeat sustained by Hasdrubal Gisco and himself, in 206, took refuge at Gades, he employed Hanno in levying mercenaries .among the neighbouring Spanish tribes ; the latter had succeeded in assembling a considerable force, when he was attacked and defeated by L. Marcius. He himself escaped from the field of battle with a small body of troops, but was soon after given up by his own followers to the Roman general. (Liv. xxviii. 23, 30 ; Appian, Hisp. 31.)
22. A Carthaginian youth, of noble birth, who was sent out, with a body of 500 horse, to reconnoitre the army of Scipio, when that general first landed in Africa, b. c. 204. Having approached too near the Roman camp he was attacked by their cavalry, and cut to pieces, together with his detachment. (Liv. xxix. 29.)
23. Another officer of the same name shared the same fate shortly after, being led into a snare by Masinissa, and cut off, with above 1000 of his men. Li vy, however, informs us that authors were not agreed whether there were two Hannos thus cut off in succession, or only one ; and that some writers represented him to have been taken prisoner, and not killed. (Liv. xxix. 34, 35.) The last version of this history is that followed by Appian (Pun. 14) and by Zonaras (ix. 12), who state that he was immediate!}' afterwards set at liberty, in exchange for the mother of Masinissa. According to Zonaras he was the son of Hasdrubal Gisco; Livy, on the contrary, calls him son of Hamilcar— what Hamilcar we know not, but certainly not the great Barca. (Comp. Eutrop. iii. 20 ; Oros. iv. 18.)
24. Surnamed Gillas, or Tigillas (r^AAas, or Tt-7/AAas), one of the ambassadors sent from Carthage to the consul Censorintis just before the beginning of the third Punic war, b. c. 149. Appian, who puts a long speech into his mouth on this occasion,
calls him the most distinguished member of the embassy. (Appian, Pun. 82.) His name is written in many of the MSS. Bdvvwv, which has been corrupted into ft\dvv(av in the extracts from Diodorus Siculus (Fragm. Urs. p. 627), and by Suidas into TShdvow.
25. Surnamed the White (Aew/foy), an officer under the command of Himilco Phamacas in the third Punic war, who, when that general went over to the Romans, prevented a part of his army from following his example. (Appian, Pun. 108.)
26. A Carthaginian of uncertain date, of whom a foolish story is told by Aelian ( V. H. xiv. 30), that he taught a number of birds to repeat the words "Hanno is a god," and then let them loose ; but the birds forgot their lesson as soon as they had regained their liberty. This anecdote is sup^ posed by Bochart and Perizonius (Ad A el. I.e.) to refer to Hanno the navigator, but certainly without foundation. It seems more probable that it may be the same who is mentioned by Pliny (H. N. viii. 21), and by Plutarch (De Praec. Polit. vol. ix. p. 191, ed. Reisk.), as having been condemned to banishment because he had succeeded in taming a lion.
27. There is a Hanno mentioned by Dion Chrysostom (vol. i. p. 522, ed. Reiske) in terms which would seem to imply that he was one of the first founders of the Carthaginian greatness, but the passage is so vague and declamatory that it would be unsafe to found on it any historical inference.
HANNO (vAmoj>), a Carthaginian navigator, under whose name we possess a TrephrAous, or a short account of a voyage round a part of Libya. The work was originally written in the Punic language, and what has come down to us is a Greek translation of the original. The work is often referred to by the ancients, but we have no statement containing any direct information by means of which we might identify its author, Hanno, with any of the many other Carthaginians of that name, or fix the time at which he lived. Pliny (H. N. ii. 67, v. 1,36) states that Hanno undertook the voyage at the time when Carthage was in a most flourishing condition. (Punicis rebus ftorentissimiS) Carthaginis potentia florente.) Some call him king, and others duos or imperator of the Carthaginians, from which we may infer that he was invested with the office of suffetes. (Solin. 56; Hanno, Peripl. Introd.) In the little Pe-riplus itself Hanno says that he was sent out by his countrymen to undertake a voyage beyond the Pillars of Hercules, and to found Libyphoenician towns, and that he sailed accordingly with sixty pentecontores, and a body of men and women, to the number of 30,000, and provisions and other necessaries. On his return from his voyage, he dedicated an account; of it, inscribed on a tablet, in the temple of Cronos, or, as Pliny says, in that of Juno. (Comp. Pomp. Mela, iii. 9 ; Marc. Heracl. Epit. Artemid. et Menip. ; Athen. iii. 83.) It is therefore presumed that our periplus is a Greek version of the contents of that Punic tablet.
These vague accounts, leaving open the widest field for conjecture and speculation, have led some critics to place the expedition as early as the Trojan war or the time of Hesiod, while others