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§ 20) acknowledges his obligations to the Romaica of Magister [eustathius] and other previous sources. He says that he pored over the Tl\dros (by which we understand the Basilica



to be designated), and the Novells promulgated by subsequent emperors. One of the most interesting parts of the work to the unprofessional reader con­sists of the extracts (lib. 2. tit. 4) from the archi­tect Julianus of Ascalon. They begin with an ac­count of measures of length, borrowed from Era­tosthenes and Strabo, and proceed with regulations of police (edicta or eparchica) prescribed by go­vernors of Syria, with respect chiefly to the pro­cesses of building, and the modes of carrying on trade. In one of these edicts (lib. 2. tit. 4. s. 51) is a citation from the third book of Quaestiones of Papinian, which may possibly be taken from the original work of Papinian, as we cannot find it in the Digest. The arrangement of the Hexabiblus, (so called from its division into six books) is de­fective, but in legal merit it is superior to most of the productions of the lower empire. A resem-•blance has been supposed to exist between some of the ideas of Harmenopulus and those of the early glossators 0131 the Corpus Juris in the West, and con­sequently some communication between them has been suspected. Thus Harmenopulus, like Accur-sius, derives the name of the Lex P'alcidia from falx, instead of deriving it from the name of its proposer, Falcidius (lib. 5. tit. 9. a. 1). The first book is occupied chiefly with judicial procedure, the second with the law of property, corporeal and incorporeal, the third with contracts, the fourth with the law of marriage, the fifth with the law of .wills, and the sixth with penal law. An appendix of four titles (the last of which relates to the ordi­nation of bishops) seems to be the addition of a later hand, and it is doubtful whether the collection of leges georgicoe or colonarioe or rmticae of Justi­nian (qu. Justinian the younger), which, in the manuscripts and printed editions, usually follows the Hexabiblus, was made by Harmenopulus.

The Hexabiblus until recently possessed validity as a system of living law in the greater part of the European dominions of Turkey. In Moldavia and Wallachia it has been supplanted, at least in part, by modern codes. In 1830, by a proclamation of Capodistrias, the judges in Greece were directed to consult the Manual of Harmenopulus, and subse­quently, by a constitution of Feb. 23 (o.s.), 1835, Otho I. directs that it shall continue in force until the new codes shall be published. (Zachariae, Hist. Jur. Gr. Rom. Delin. §§ 58, 59 ; Maurer, das Grie-chisclie Volk.)

The first edition of this work was that of Theo-doricus Adamaeus of Suallemberg, 4to. Paris, 1540. This was followed by the Latin translation of Ber-nardus a Rey, 8vo. Coloniae, 1547, and by an­other Latin translation made by Mercier, 4to. Lyon. 1556. The edition of Denis Godefroi, 4to. Geneva, 1547, was the best, until the appearance of the very valuable edition of Reiz in the supple­ment to Meerman's Thesaurus, La Haye, 1780. From the edition of Reiz, the ancient Greek text was reprinted 'Ev sA07)j>cus, 8vo. 1835. A trans­lation into modern Greek appeared at Venice, 4to. 1744, and has been reprinted, with the addition of a translation of the Epitome of Canons, in 1777, 1805, and 1 820. (Savigny's Zeitschrift. vol. viii. p 222), A new translation by K. Klonares was printed 'E? NauTrAfy, 8vo. 1833. There is an old


translation into German from tJie Latin by Justin Gobler,fbl. Frank. 1556.

2. Epitome Divinorum fit Sacrorum Canonum, a compilation, which is based upon the second part of the Nomocanon of Photius, as altered by Jo­hannes Zonaras. It is divided into six sections; the first relating to bishops'; the second to priests, deacons, and subdeacons ; the third to clerici; the fourth to monks and monasteries ; the fifth to lay­men, including penances for offences; the sixth to women. It is printed with a Latin translation and scholia (some of which bear the name, of Philo-theus, and others of Citrensis, while the greater part are anonymous) in the beginning of the first volume of Leunclavius, J. G. R.

3. Ilepl alp€ff€cav9 sen De Opinionibus Haereti" corum qui singulis Temporibus extiterunt. This treatise was first published by Leunclavius, with a Latin translation, at the end of Theorianus on the Embassy of Manuel Comnenus to the Armenian Court, 8vo. Bale, 1578. It is also to be found in the J. G» R. of Leunclavius, vol. i. p. 457 ; in MorelPs' JBibl. Pair. vol. ii. and in other authors who have written upon Sects. To the end of this treatise is appended the Confession of Faith of Harmenopulus, which Nic. Comnenus (Praenot. Mystag. p. 144) asserts that Harmenopulus recited twice in his last illness upon the Very day of his death. In the first and probably more genuine edition of 1578, Harmenopulus, in this creed, re-* presents the Holy Spirit as proceeding from the Father alone ; whereas, in the J. G. R. of Leun­ clavius, vol. i. p. 552, the words Kal tov viov are interpolated. ;

(See, in addition td the authorities cited in this article, AfyuAios Xe/mroy (Herzog), npayiJ.a- T6io Trepi tov Tlpoxetpov 7} Trjs 'E]-a€i€\ov kmv- (rravrlvov tov 'ApjuewwrovAoir 'Ey Movdxy-, 8vo. 1837.) [J.T. G.J

HARMODIUS ('Afluo'&os), of Lepreon, a Greek writer, whose time is unknown. His work, irepl tw €v &iya.\evffi yofjii^uv^ is repeatedly quoted by Atheriaeus. (iv. p. 148, f., x. p. 442, b., xi. p. 465, e., p. 497, c.; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 445, ed. Westermann; comp. herodtcus.) [P. S.]

HARJMODIUS and ARISTOGEI'TON ('Ap-juoStos, 'Api<TT07€fT«y), Athenians, of the blood of the gephyraej, were the murderers of Hippar-chus, brother of the tyrant Hippias,-in b. c. 514. The following is the account we have received from the best authorities of the circumstances which induced the crime. Aristogeiton, a citizen of the middle class, was strongly attached to the young and beautiful Harmodius, who returned his affec­tion with equal warmth. Hipparchus endeavoured to withdraw the youth's love to himself, and, fail­ing in this, resolved to avenge the slight by putting upon him a public insult. Accordingly, he took care that the sister of Harmodius should be sum-! moned to bear one of the sacred baskets in some religious procession, and when she presented her­self for the purpose, he caused her to be dismissed and declared unworthy of the honour. Aristogeiton had been before exasperated by the advances which Hipparchus had made to Harmodius, and this fresh insult determined the two friends to slay both Hipparchus and his brother Hippias as well. Of the motive for the conspiracy a different account is given by the author of the dialogue named " Hipparchus," which is found among the works of Plato. According to this writer, Aristo-

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