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established in various places, as in Elis (Paus. vi. 25. § 5), at Apollonia (Herod, ix. 93), Hermione (Paus. ii. 34. § 10), in the acropolis of Corinth (ii. 4. § 7; comp. ii. 1. § 6), near Argos (ii. 18. § 3), at Troezene (ii. 31. § 8), Megalopolis (viii. 9. § 2, 31. § 4), and several other places, especially in the island of Rhodes, where the famous colossus of Rhodes was a representation of Helios: it was 70 cubits in height, and, being overthrown by an earthquake, the Rhodians were commanded by an oracle not to erect it again. (Pind. Ol. vii. 54, &c.; Strab. xiv. p. 652; Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 7,17.) The sacrifices offered to Helios consisted of white rams, boars, bulls, goats, lambs, especially white horses, and honey. (Horn. II. xix. 197; Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 36,1668; Hygin. Fab. 223; Paus. iii. 20. § 5 ; Herod, i. 216; Strab. xi. 513.) Among the animals sacred to him, the cock is especially mentioned. (Paus. v. 25. § 5.) The Roman poets, when speaking of the god of the sun (Sol), usually adopt the notions of the Greeks, but the worship of Sol was introduced also at Rome, especially after the Romans had become acquainted with the East, though traces of the worship of the sun and moon occur at a very early period. (Varro, de Ling. Lat. v. 74; Dionys. ii. 50; Sext. Ruf. Reg. Urb. iv.) Helios was represented on the pedestal of the Olympian Zeus, in the act of ascending his chariot (Pans. v. 11. § 3), and several statues of him are mentioned (vi. 24. § 5, viii. 9. § 2, 31. § 4) ; he was also represented riding in his chariot, drawn by four horses. (Plin, H. A7", xxxiv. 3, 19 ; comp. Hirt, Mythol. Bilderb. i. 35.) [L. S.]
HELIUS ("HAros), a freed-man of the emperor Claudius, and steward of the imperial demesnes in the province of Asia. He was one of Agrippina's agents in ridding herself of M. Junius Silanus, proconsul of that province in a. d. 55. During Nero's excursion into Greece, a. d. 67—68, Helius acted as prefect of Rome and Italy. He was worthy of the tyrant he represented. Dion Cassius (Ixiii. 12) says the only difference between them was that the heir of the Caesars emulated the minstrels, and the freed-man aped the heir of the Caesars. The borrowed majesty of Helius was equally oppressive to the senate, the equites, arid the populace. He put to death Sulpicius Came-rinus [camerinus] and his son, because they inherited the agnomen Pythicus, which Nero, since he had sung publicly at the Pythian games, arrogated to himself. He compelled the equestrian order to subscribe to a statue of himself, and his edicts of mulct, banishment, and death, were issued without any reference to the emperor. The universal hatred which he incurred secured the fidelity of Helius to his master. When his urgent despatches could not draw Nero from the spectacles and theatres of Greece, Helius precipitately quitted Rome, and personally remonstrated with the emperor on allowing conspiracies to spring up on all sides, and in the capital itself, unchecked. After Nero's death, Helius, by the command of Galba, was conducted in chains through the streets of Rome, and, with Locusta the poisoner, Patrobius, and other creatures of the late tyrant, put to death. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 1; Suet. Ner. 23; Pint. Galb. 17; Dion Cass. Ixiii. 12, 18, 19, Ixiv. 3.) [W. B. D.]
ceived it into the Peloponnesian confederacy, in the 21st year of the war, b.c. 411. (Thuc. viii. 80.) Here he appears to have remained with a contin gent from Megara. We find him at the end of the year b. c. 408 left with Coeratados, the Boeotian, in command of the place, then besieged by the Athenians, while Clearchus went out to seek rein forcements. The Byzantines, whose lives were being sacrificed to leave sufficient food for the gar rison, -took the opportunity of communicating with the besiegers ; and by means of a stratagem, suc ceeded in admitting them. Helixus and his col league were obliged to surrender as prisoners of war. (Xen.Hell. i. 3. §§ 17—22; comp. Diod. xiii. 66, 67.) [A. H. C.]
HELLADIUS ('EAAc&ios). 1. Of Alexandria, a grammarian in the time of Theodosius the younger. Photius (cod. 145) gives a brief account of his \€£tK&i' Kara ffroix^iov^ which embraced chiefly prose words. The work is again quoted by Photius (Cod. 158, p. 100, a. 38 ed. Bekker) under the title of rwv \4j-swv av\\oy^. Suidas calls it Ae|eeos iravroias xP^ffls Kara 0To?x€ioi', and mentions also the following works by Helladius: 2. "Eiuppacris <£iA(m/Jas. 3. Aiovvaros 77 Moycru. 4. *EK</>pa<ns r&v \ovrpwv Kwvffravnavwv. 5. "Eiraivos OeooWtou rov jSacnAews. It is likely, from the titles, that some of these works were poetical.
2. Besantinoiis, Besantinus, or Bisantinus, an Egyptian grammarian, who lived at the beginning of the fourth century, under the emperors Licinius and Maximinianus, and composed four books of miscellaneous extracts, under the title of irpayf^a-reia xpW"Ofia0ei<£*>, an account of which is given by Photius (Cod. 279). The work is often quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum. The extracts in Photius were edited, with a Latin version, by Schottus, and notes by Meursius, as an appendix to the posthumous work of Meursius, De Regno Laconico et Aiheniensium Piraeo, Ultraj. 1686,4to, reprinted in Gronovius's Thesaurus Antiq. Graec. vol. x. 1701, fol.
3. There is one distich in the Greek Anthology under the name of Helladius. (Jonsius, Script. Hist. Phil. i. 2, 4, p. 15; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. p. 477, vol. vi. p. 368; vol. x. pp. 718, 772 ; Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 438 ; Jncobs,Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 145, vol. xiii. p. 901.)
4. Bishop of Caesareia, in Cappadocia, succeeded his master, Basil the Great, in that see, a. d. 378, and was present at the two councils of Constantinople in a. d. 381 and 394. His life of St. Basil is quoted by Damascenus (Orat. de Imag. i. p. 327), but the genuineness of the work is doubtful. (Sozom. H. E. viii. 6; Tillemont, Mem. Eccles. vol. ix. p. 589 ; Cave, Hist. Lit. s. a. 378; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ix. p. 293.)
5. Bishop of Tarsus, originally a monk, flourished about A. d. 431, and was remarkable for his attach ment to Nestorius, through which he lost his bishopric. He was afterwards reconciled to the church, but he was compelled to join in the ana thema upon Nestorius. Six letters of his are ex tant. (Cave, Hist. Lit. s. a. 431.) [P. S.]
HELLANICUS ('EAAa'i//Kos). 1. Of Myti-lene in the island of Lesbos, the most eminent among the, Greek logographers. He was the son, according to some, of Andromenes or Aristomenes, and, according to others, of Scamon (Scammon), though this latter jnay be merely a mistake of