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HERACLEITUS.

and Hippocrates II., tile most famous of that name. (Jo. Tzetzes, Chil. vii. Hist. 155, in Fabric. Bibl, Grct-ec. vol. xii. p. 680, ed, vet. ; Poeti Epist. ad ArtaiK.) and Sorani Vita Hippocr. in Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii, p. 770, 850 ; Suid. s. v. 'iTTTro/cpa-Ttjs ; Steph. Byz. s. v. KaJy).

2. A physician of Tarentnm (hence commonly called Tarentinus), a pupil of Mantias (Galen, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. ii. 1, vol. xiii. p. 462), who lived probably in the third or second century B. c., somewhat later than Apollonius the Empiric and Glaucias. (Cels. De Med, i. Praef. p. 5.) He belonged to the sect of the Empirici (Cels. /. c. ; Ga­len, De Metli. Med. ii. 7, vol. x. p. 142), and wrote some works, on Materia Medica, which are very fre­quently quoted by Galen, but of which only a few fragments remain. Galen speaks of him in high terms of praise, saying that he was an author who could be entirely depended on, as he wrote in his works only what he had himself found from his own experience to be correct, (De Compos. Medi­cam. sec. Gen. iv. 7, vol. xiii, p. 7l7<) He was also one of the first persons who wrote a commentary on all the works in the Hippocratic Collection. (Galen, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Humor." i. Prooem. 24, vol. xvi. pp.1, 196.) He is several times quoted by Caelius Aurelianus and other ancient authors. A further account of his lost works, and his medical opinions so far as they can be found out, may be found in two essays by C. G. K'uhn, inserted in the second volume of his Opusoula Academica Medica et Phttologica9 Lips. 2 vols. 8vo, 1827, 1828.

; 3. A physician, mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (v. 94) as one of the followers of Hicesius, the head of the Erasistratean school of medicine at Smyrna, who must therefore probably have lived in the first century b. c.

4. Surnamed Erythraeus, a physician of Ery- thrae in Ionia, who was a pupil of Chrysermus (Galen, De Differ. Puts. iv. 10, vol. viii. p. 743), a fellow-pupil of Apollonius, and a contemporary of Strabo in the first century b. c. (Strab. xiv. 1, p. 182, ed. Tauchn.) Galeji calls him the most distinguished of all the pupils of Chysermus (/. c.\ and mentions a work written by him, Ilepl rrjs 'Hpo<pi\ov A/pecrews, De Herophili Secta (Ibid* p. 746), consisting of at least seven books. He wrote a commentary on the sixth book of Hippocrates, De Morbis Vulgaribus (Galen, Comment, in Hip­ pocr. " Epid. VI" i. Praef. vol. xvii. pt. i. p. 793), but neither this nor any of his writings are still extant. * [W.A.G.]

HERACLEITUS ('Hpa/cXe/ros), a native of Cyme, in Aeolia, was appointed by Arsinoe, the wife of Lysimachus, to the government of Heraclea, when that city was given to her by her husband. By his arbitrary and tyrannical administration lie inflicted a great injury on the prosperity of He­raclea, and alienated the minds of the citizens, so that after the death of Lysimachus (b. c. 281) they rose in revolt against him, and, uniting with the mercenaries under his command, took Heracleitus prisoner, and re-established, the liberty of their city. (Memnon, ap. Phot. p. 225, a. b. ed. Bek-ker.) In the second passage where he is mentioned by Memnon, his name is written Heracleides: it is uncertain which is the correct form. [E. H. B.]

HERACLEITUS ('HpckAaros). 1. Of Lesbos, the author of a history of Macedonia, but other-

€-• • • /

wise unknown. (Diog. Laert. ix. 17.)

HERACLEITUS.

2. A lyric poet, by whom there existed, in the time of Diogenes Laertius (ix. 17), an encomium on the Twelve Gods.

3. An elegiac poet of Halicarnasstis, a contem­porary and friend of Callimachus, who wrote an epigram on him which is preserved in Diogenes Laertius (ix. 17 ; comp. Strab. xiv. p. 656).

4. Of Sicyon, the author of a work on stones, of which the second book is quoted by Plutarch. (DeFluv. 13.)

5. A Peripatetic philosopher, who is mentioned by Plutarch (adv. Colot. p. 1115) as the author of a work entitled Zoroaster.

6. An Academic philosopher of Tyre and a friend of Antiochus. He was for many years a pupil of Cleitomachus and Philo, and was a philo­sopher of some reputation. (Cic. Acad. ii. 4.) Some writers have confounded him with Heracleitus the Peripatetic. (Menage, ad Diog. Latrt. ix. 170

7. The reputed author of a work Tlepl 'att'kttu^ which was published from a Vatican MS. with a Latin translation and some other works of a similar kind by Leo Allatius, Rome, 1641. But the editor suspected that the name Heracleitus was a mistake for Heracleides, and thinks it possible that he may be the Heracleides who wrote on the allegories in Homer. This work has been also published by Gale in his Op. Mythologica, Cantab. 1671 ; by Teucher, Lemgo, 1796 ; and by Westermann, in his Mythograph, Brunsvig. 1843.

8. A comic poet, whose comedy, entitled Ee*>i- fav, is referred to by Athenaeus (x. p. 414). Mei- neke (Hist. Grit. Com. Gr. p. 422) thinks that the name Heracleitus is a mistake for Heracleides, and that, consequently, our comic poet is the same as the Heracleides who ridiculed Adaeus, a commander of mercenaries (under Philip of Macedonia), by calling him 'AAe/cTpifwy, or the cock. (Athen. xii. p. 532; Zenob. Proverb, vi. 34.) [L. S.]

HERACLEITUS ('Hpa'/rAei-ros), of Ephesus, surnamed $u<ri/c<k, son of Blyson, a philosopher generally considered as belonging to the Ionian school, though he differed from their principles in many respects. He is said to have been instructed by Hippasus of Metapontum, a Pythagorean, or by Xenophanes, the founder of the Eleatic school, but neither statement rests on any probable foundation. We read that in his youth he travelled extensively, and that after his return to Ephesus the chief ma­gistracy was offered him, which, however, he trans­ferred to his brother. He gave, as his reason for declining it, the infamous state of morals prevalent in the city, and employed himself in playing af dice with boys near the temple of Artemis, inform­ing the passers by that this was a more profitable occupation than to attempt the hopeless task of governing them. He appears afterwards-to have become a complete recluse, rejecting even the kind" nesses offered by Dareius, and at last retreating to the mountains, where he lived on pot-herbs, but, after some time, he was compelled by the sickness con­sequent on such meagre diet to return to Ephesus, where he died. As to the manner of his death, various absurd stories are related. His age at the time of his death is said, on Aristotle's authority, to have been sixty (Diog. Lae'rt. ix. 3, compared with viii. 52), and he flourished about the 69th Olympiad (Ib. ix, I), being later than Pythagoras, Xenophanes, and Hecataeus, whom he mentions. With this date Suidas agrees, and hence Clinton (F. H. vol. ii.) places him under the year b. c. 513,

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