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HIEMPSAL.

quarters in different towns in the neighbourhood of Cirta; but Hiempsal having imprudently esta­blished himself at Thirmida, in a house belonging to a dependent of Jugurtha, the latter took advan­tage of this circumstance to introduce a body of armed men into the-house during the night, who put to death the unhappy prince, together with many of his followers. (Sail. Jug. 5, 9, 11, 12; Diod. Exc. Vales, xxxv. p. 605 ; Flor. iii. 2.) Such is Sallust's narrative. Livy, on the contrary, ap­pears, so far as we can judge from the words of his Epitomist, to represent the death of Hiempsal as the result of open hostilities. (Liv. Epit. Ixii.) Orosius, who probably followed Livy, says only Hiempsalem occidit (v. 15).

2. King of Numidia, and father of Juba, the adversary of Caesar. (Caes. B. C. ii. 25; Suet. Caes. 71.) It appears from an inscription pre­served by Reinesius and Spon, that he was a grandson of Masinissa, and son of Gulussa.* (See Wess. ad Diod. vol. ii. p. 607.) If this account be correct, he was already a man of advanced age, when we find him mentioned as affording shelter to the young Marius and Cethegus, after the tri­umph of the party of Sulla at Rome, b. c. 88. At what time he obtained the sovereignty, or over what part of Numidia his rule extended, we have ilq information, none of the Roman historians having mentioned the arrangements adopted in re­gard to Nignidia after the Jugurthine war. But though Hiempsal received at his court the refugees of the Marian party-, as already stated, he was far from determined to espoogs tkeir cause, and sought to detain them in a kind of tieiXQurable captivity, while he awaited the issue of events^ They, how­ever, made their escape, and joined the elder Marius. (Pint. Mar. 40; Appian^.C. i. 62.) In consequence, probably, of his conduct on this occa­sion, he was afterwards expelled from the throne of Numidia by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian party in Africa, and Hiarbas esta­blished in his stead; but when, in b. c. 81, Pompey landed in Africa, and overthrew Domitius, he drove out Hiarbas in his turn, and reinstated Hiempsal on the throne. (Plut. Pomp. 12 ; Appian, B. C. i. 80.) He appears to have remained in undis­puted possession of the kingdom from this period till his death, the date of which is not mentioned, but it may be inferred from the incidental notice in Suetonius (Goes. 71) that he was still alive as late as b. c. 62. Cicero also refers to him in an oration delivered the preceding year (Adv. Rullum, Or. ii. 22) in terms that evidently imply that he was then still on the throne. The peculiar privileges there adverted to, as possessed by the lands of Hiempsal in Africa, were probably conceded to him by Pom­pey. Many of the Gaetulian tribes were at the same time subjected to his authority. (Hirt. B. Afr. 56.) SaUust also cites (Jug. 17), as an au­thority for some of his statements concerning the early history of Africa, certain books written in the Punic language—qui regis Hiempsalis dicebantur.

* It seems, however, that there is considerable doubt as to the true reading of the inscription in question : according to the version given by Belley (Mem. de PAcad. des Inscr. vol. xxxviii. p. 104.) and Eckhel (vol. iv. p. 158), it would make Hiemp­ sal a son of Gauda, and, consequently, great-grand- ; son of Masinissa, which is certainly upon chronolo­ gical grounds more probable. i

451

HIERAX.

There is no doubt that the Hiempsal here meant is the present one; nor does there seem any reason to suppose, with Heeren (Ideen. vol. iv. p. 21), that Sallust meant to designate him only as the proprietor, not the author, of the work in question. [E. H. B.]

HIERA ('le'pa), the wife of Telephus, who in the Trojan war commanded the Mysian women on horseback. Late traditions described her as ex­celling in beauty Helena herself. She fell by the hand of Nireus. (Philostr. Her. ii. 18.) [L. S.]

HIERAS, a Galatian, who was ambassador for king Deiotarus at Rome, when Cicero defended that prince in b. c. 45 (Cic. pro Deiot. 15. § 41, 42). With the devotion of an Oriental, Hieras offered himself to the torture in proof of his master's inno­ cence. (Schol. Gronov. ad Deiot. p. 424; Orelli.) Hieras was at Rome in the following year also, b. c. 44. (Cic. ad Att. 16. 3.) [W. B. D.]

HIERAX ('IeVa|), the name of two mythical personages, respecting whom nothing of interest is related. (Apoil. ii. 1. § 3 ; Ant. Lib. 3.) [L. S.]

HIERAX ('Iepa|). 1. A musician of the Mythic period, before the Trojan war. He is said to have invented the Hieracian measure, vojjlos tepdicios, and to have been the friend and disciple of Olympus the musician. He died young. (Pol­lux, iv. 10; Fabr. Bibl. Gr. vol. i. pp. 136 and 726.)

2. A writer, from whose work Tlepl SiKcuoffvvns a quotation is made in the 'Iowa (Violetum) of Ar-senius, of Monembasia, first published by Walz, 8vo. Stuttgard, 1832.

There is a citation from Hierax, perhaps the same as that contained in the works of Arsenius, among the yv&^on subjoined to the edition of Cal* limachus, printed by Frobenius and Episcopius, at Basel, 4to. 1532. (Bandini, Catal. Codd. Med. Latip* vol. i. p. 549.)

3. A Christian teacher, charged with heresy by Epiphanius and Augustin, and classed by Photius and Peter of Sicily with the Manichaeans. Tille-mont and Cave agree in placing him at the end of the third or beginning of- the fourth century, and their judgment is confirmed by the manner in which Epiphanius, writing about a. d. 3-7 5, refers to his death. Epiphanius writes the name 'lepa/cas', John of Damascus calls him Hierax ('Ie/oa£); in Augustin and the work entitled Praedestinatus it is written Hieraca. According to Epiphanius and John of Damascus, he was of Leontus (ev rfj Aeovr^) or Leontopolis, in Egypt, and was eminent for his attainments in every kind of knowledge cultivated by the Egyptians and the Greeks, especially in medicine: but he was perhaps only slightly, if at all, acquainted with astronomy and magic. He was thoroughly versed in the Old and New Testa­ments, and wrote expositions of them. The excel­lence of his life, and his power of persuasion, enabled him to spread his peculiar views very widely among the Egyptian ascetics. His absti­nence was remarkable, but not beyond what his constitution could bear, for he is said to have lived to more than ninety years, and was distinguished to the day of his death by the undiminished clear­ness of his sight, and by his beautiful writing. His obnoxious opinions were a denial of the resur­rection of the body, and of a heaven perceptible by the senses; the repudiation of marriage, for he be­lieved that none of those who married could inherit the kingdom of heaven ; the rejection from the

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