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ship of enormous size, far exceeding all previously constructed, which, when completed, he sent laden with corn as a present to Ptolemy king of Egypt. A detailed account of this wonderful vessel has been preserved to us by Athenaeus (v. 40—44). But while he secured to his subjects the blessings of peace, Hieron did not neglect to prepare for war, and not only kept up a large and well-appointed fleet, but employed his friend and kinsman Archimedes in the construction of powerful engines both for attack and defence, which afterwards played so important a part in the siege of Syracuse by Mar-cellus. (Liv. xxiv. 34; Plut. Marc. 14.) The power and magnificence of Hieron were celebrated by Theocritus in his sixteenth Idyll, but the poet's panegyric adds hardly any thing to our historical knowledge.
Hieron had only one son, Gelon, who died shortly before his father ; but he left two daughters, De-marata and Heraclea, who were married respectively to Andranodorus and Zoippus, two of the principal citizens of Syracuse. He was succeeded by his grandson, Hieronymus.
Numerous coins are extant, which bear the name of Hieron, and some of these have been referred by the earlier numismatists to the elder Hieron ; but it is quite certain, from the style of work of the coins themselves, and the characters of the inscription, that they must all have been struck in the reign of Hieron II. Eckhel (vol. i. pp. 251—257) and Visconti .(IconograpMe Grecque^ vol. ii. p. 16) are, however, of opinion that the head upon them, which bears the diadem, is that of the elder Hieron, and that we cannot suppose Hieron II. to have adopted the diadem on his coins when he never wore it in public. There does not seem much weight in this objection, and it is probable, on the whole, that the portrait which we find on these coins is that of Hieron II. himself. [E. H. B.]
COINS OP HIERON II.
HIERON ('le'peoi/). 1. A pilot or navigator of Soli in Cilicia, was sent out by Alexander with a triaconter to explore the southern shores of the Erythraean sea, and circumnavigate Arabia. He advanced much further than any previous navigator had do?ie, but at length returned, apparently discouraged by the unexpected extent of the Arabian coast, and reported on his return that Arabia was nearly as large as India. (Arr. Anab. vii. 20.)
2. A citizen of Laodiceia in Phrygia, distinguished for his wealth. He adorned his native
city with many splendid buildings, and left a property of 2000 talents at his death to be applied to public purposes. (Strab. xii. p. 578.)
3. One of the thirty tyrants established at Athens, b. c. 404. (Xen. Hell. ii. 3. § 2.)
4. One of the chief satraps or governors among the Parthians, though, from his name, evidently of Greek origin, at the time when Tiridates, sup ported by Tiberius and the Roman influence, in vaded Parthia, a. d. 36. After wavering for some time between the two rivals, Hieron declared in favour of Artabanus, and was mainly instrumental in re-establishing him upon the throne. (Tac. Ann. vi. 42, 43.) [E. H. B.]
HIERON ('Iep<yp), a Greek writer on veterinary surgery, whose date is unknown, but who may have lived in the fourth or fifth century after Christ. Some fragments, which are all that remains of his works, are to be found in the collection of writers on veterinary surgery, first published in Latin by Joannes Ruellius, Paris, 1530, fol., and in Greek by Simon Grynaeus, Basel, 1537, 4to.
[W. A. G.]
HIERON, modeller. [tlepolemus.]
HIERONYMUS ('lepc^o*), historical. 1. Of Elis, a lochagus in the army of the Ten Thousand Greeks, who is mentioned by Xenophon as taking a prominent part in the discussion that ensued after the death of Clearchus and the other generals, as well as on other occasions during the retreat and subsequent operations. (Xen. Anab, iii. 1. § 34, vi. 2. § 10, vii. 1. § 32, 4. § 18.)
2. An Arcadian, who is reproached by Demo sthenes with having betrayed the interests of his country to Philip, by whom he had allowed himself to be corrupted. (Dem. de Cor. p. 324, de Fals. Ley* p. 344, ed. Reiske.) An elaborate argument in defence of the policy adopted by him, and those who acted with him on this occasion, will be found in Polybius (xvii. 14). [E. H. B.]
HIERONYMUS ('le^w/jos), of Gardia, an historian who is frequently cited as one of the chief authorities for the history of the times immediately following the death of Alexander. He had himself taken an active part in the events of that period. Whether he had accompanied his fellow-citizen Eumenes during the campaigns of Alexander we have no distinct testimony, but after the death of that prince, we find him not only attached to the service of his countryman, but already enjoying a high place in his confidence. It seems probable also from the terms in which he is alluded to as describing the magnificent bier or funeral car of Alexander, that his admiration was that of an eye-witness, and that he was present at Babylon at the time of its construction. (Athen. v. p. 206 ; comp. Diod. xviii. 26.) The first express mention of him occurs in b. c. 320, when he was sent by Eumenes, at that time shut up in the castle of Nora, at the head of the deputation which he despatched to Antipater. But before he could return to Eumenes, the death of the regent produced a complete change in the relative position of parties, and Antigonus, now desirous to conciliate Eumenes, charged Hieronymus to be the bearer of friendly offers and protestations to his friend and countryman. (Diod. xviii. 42, 50 ; Plut. Eum. 12.) But though Hieronymus was so far gained over by Antigonus as to undertake this embassy, yet in the struggle that ensued he adhered steadily to the cause of Eumenes, and accom-