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,*iich as were customary at the time, and were .delivered either on certain occasions, as those on the marriage of Severus, and on the death of his son Rufinus, or they were spoken merely by way of oratorical exhibitions. Some of them relate to events of the time, and so far are of historical interest. Their style is not above that of the ordinary rhetoricians of his period ; it is obscure and overladen with figurative and allegorical expressions ; and although it is clear that Himerius was not without talent as an orator, yet he is so much under the influence of his age, that with a great .want of taste he indulges in bombastic phraseology, mixes up poetical and obsolete expressions with his prose, and seldom neglects an opportunity of displaying his learning.
After the revival of letters, the productions of Himerius were very much neglected, for a complete edition of all that is still extant of them was never made till towards the end of last century. Five orations had been published before; one by Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. ix. p. 426, &c. old edition), another by J. H. Majus (Giessen, 1719, 8vo.), and again three by the same Majus (Halle, 1720, fol.), when G. Ch. Harles edited one oration (the seventh in the present order), as a specimen and precursor of all the others, with a commentary by G. Werns-dorf, Erlangen, 1784. 8vo; Wernsdorf now prepared a complete collection of all the extant productions of Himerius, with commentary and introduction, which appeared at length at Gottingen, 17.90, 8vo., and is still the only complete edition of Himerius. One fragment of some length, which has since been discovered, is contained in Boisson-ade's Anecdot Graec. vol. i. p. J72, &c. (Comp. WernsdorPs edition, p. xxxv., &c.; Westermann, (Jtesch. der Griech. Beredtsamk. § 101, and Beilage, xiii., where a complete list of Himerius's orations is given.)
2. The father of lamblichus, is mentioned in several of the letters of Libanius. (Wernsdorf, p. xxxvii., &c.) .
3. Bishop of Nicomedeia, where he succeeded Nestorius, but was deposed by Maximian, in a. d. 432. (Murat. in the Anecdot. Graec. ad Ep. Firmi.)
4. A Thracian, one of the generals of Justinian, whom we meet with at first in Africa, and afterwards at Rhegium in Italy. (Procop. Bell. Vandal. iv. 23, Bell. Goth. iii. 39.)
Nine more persons of the name of Himerius, concerning whom, however, nothing of interest is known, are enumerated by Wernsdorf in the intro duction to his edition, and in Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 55, note ww. [L. S.]
HIMERUS (e/Ijucpo$), the personification of longing love, is first mentioned by Hesiod (Theog. 201), where he and Eros appear as the companions of Aphrodite. He is sometimes seen in works of art representing erotic circles; and in the temple of Aphrodite at Megara, he was represented by Scopas, together with Eros and Pothus. (Paus. i. 43. §6.) [L.S.]
HIMILCO ('I/ufA/wr). Considerable variations are found in the MSS. (especially of Greek authors) in the mode of writing this name, which is frequently confounded with Hamilcar, and written 'A^Afecor, 'l/xf\«as,.or even 'AjufA/cas (see Wes-seling, ad Diod. xiv. 49). It is probable indeed that Hamilcar and Himilco are only two forms of the same name: both were of common occurrence at Carthage.
1. A Carthaginian, mentioned by Pliny (H. N. ii. 67) as having conducted a voyage of discovery from Gades towards the north, along the western shores of Europe, at the same time that Hanno undertook his well-known voyage along the west coast of Africa. [hanno the navigator.] He is not elsewhere referred to by Pliny, but is quoted repeatedly as an authority by Festus Avienus in his geographical poem called Ora Maritima (vv. 117, 383, 412, ed. Wernsdorf, in the Poetae Latini Mitiores, vol. v. pars 3). It appears from the passages there cited that Himilco had represented his farther progress as prevented by the stagnant nature of the sea, loaded with sea weed, and the absence of wind, statements which do not speak highly for his character as a discoverer. His voyage is said to have lasted four months, but it is impossible to judge how far it was extended. Perhaps it was intentionally wrapt in obscurity by the commercial jealousy of the Carthaginians, and the fabulous statements just alluded to may have been designed to prevent navigators of other nations from following in the same track. We have no clue to the period at which this expedition was undertaken: Pliny says only that it was during the flourishing times of Carthage (Carthaginis potentia florente). Heeren (Ideen. vol. iv. p. 539) and Botticher (Gesch. d. Carthager, p. 17) are disposed to regard this Himilco as the same with No. 2, the grandson of Mago; but there are no sufficient grounds for this supposition.
2. A son of Hamilcar, and grandson of Mago, mentioned by Justin (xix. 2 init.}, of whom nothing more is known, for the Himilco subsequently mentioned in the same chapter is clearly the same as the subject of the next article, though Justin seems to have confounded the two.
3. Son of Hanno, commander, together with Hannibal, the son of Gisco, in the great Carthaginian expedition to Sicily, B. c. 406. His father is probably the same Hanno mentioned by Justin (xix. 2) among the sons of Hamilcar, in whicji case Himilco and Hannibal were first cousins. Dio-dorus (xiii. 80) expressly states them to have been of the same family. It was probably this relationship that induced the Carthaginians, when Hannibal manifested some reluctance to undertake the command of a new expedition, to associate Himilco with him. The forces placed under their joint command amounted, according to Timaeus and Xenophon, to 120,000 men: Ephorus, with his usual exaggeration, stated them at 300,000. (Diod. xiii. 80; Xen. Hell. i. 5. § 21.) With this great army the two generals formed the siege of Agri-gentum, and directed their attacks against it on several points at once. In the course of the works they constructed for this purpose, they destroyed many sepulchres, a circumstance to which the superstitious fears of the multitude attributed a pestilence that broke out in the camp soon afterwards, and which carried off many victims, Hannibal among the rest. Hirtlilco, now left sole general, after attempting to relieve the religious apprehensions of his soldiers \>y propitiatory sacrifices, continued to press the siege with vigour. The-arrival of Daphnaeus with a body of Syracusan and other auxiliaries for a time changed the face of affairs, and Himilco was even blockaded in his camp, and reduced to great straits for want of provisions ; but having, with the assistance of his fleet, intercepted a Syracusan convoy, he was