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for his treachery with a purple rotoe and other ornaments of distinction, as well as with a sum of money. After this he returned to Africa, but we do not learn that he was able to render any im portant services to the Romans in their subsequent operations. (Appian, Pun. 97, 100, 104, 107,109; Zonar. ix. 27; Eutrop. iv. 10.) [E. H. B.]
HIPPAGORAS ('I7nra7<v>as), a writer mentioned by Athenaeus (xiv. p. 630 A.) as the author .of a treatise Ilepl rijs Kapxntiovtw no\ireias.
[C. P. M.l
HIPPALCMUS (wl7nraAK/*os), the name of two mythical personages, the one a son of Pelops and Hippodameia, and the other an Argonaut. (Schol. ad Find. Ol. i. 144 ; Hygin. Fab. 14.) [L. S.]
HIPPARCHIA ('iTrirapxia), born at Maroneia, a town of Thrace. She lived about b. c. 328. She was the daughter of a family of wealth and distinction; but having been introduced by her brother Meteocles to Grates, an ugly and deformed Cynic [crates of thebes], she conceived such a violent passion for him, that she informed her parents that if they refused to allow her to marry him, she should kill herself. They begged Crates to persuade her out of this strange fancy, and he certainly appears to have done his best to accomplish their wishes, since he exhibited to her his humpback and his wallet, saying, " Here is the bridegroom, and this is his fortune." Hipparchia, however, was quite satisfied, declaring that she could not find any where a handsomer or a richer spouse. They were accordingly married, and she assumed the Cynic dress and manners, and plunged into all possible excesses of eccentricity. Suidas says that she wrote some treatises, amongst others, questions addressed to Theodorus, surnamed the Atheist. There is an epigram on her by Antipater, in the Anthology, in which she is made to say, r&v Se kvvqov e\6fjia,v pupaXeov pioTov, and to pronounce herself as much superior to Atalanta as wisdom is better than hunting. (Diog. Laert. vi. 96 ; Menage, Historia Mulierum Philosopharum, 63; Brucker, Hist. Grit. Phil. ii. 2. 8.) [G. E. L. C.]
HIPPARCHUS flTFTrapxos), historical. 1. Of the borough of Cholargae in Attica, a distant relation of his namesake the son of Peisistratus, is mentioned as the first person banished by ostracism from Athens. (Plut. Nic. 11.)
2. Of Euboea, one of the warmest partisans of Philip of Macedon, who rewarded him for his zeal by appointing him, together with Automedon and Cleitarchus, to be rulers, or, as Demosthenes calls them tyrants, of Eretria, supported by a force of mercenary troops. (Dem. Phil. iii. p. 125, de Cor. •p. 324, ed. Reiske.) From an anecdote mentioned by Plutarch (Apophth. p. 178), it appears that Philip entertained for him feelings of warm personal regard.
3. A freedman of M* Antony, in whose favour he enjoyed a high place, notwithstanding which he was one of the first to go over to Octavian. He afterwards, established himself at Corinth. (Plut. Ant.
HIPPARCHUS ("lirirapxos), literary. ]. Art Athenian comic poet. Suidas (s. t>.) assigns him to the old comedy ; but from what he adds, that "his dramas were about marriages," and from the extant titles of his plays, namely, 'Ai'oa'wfo/ueroz, Havvvxts, ©ats, and Ztaypd<f>os, it is evident that Hipparchus belonged to the new comedy. He was probably contemporary with Diphilus and Menan-der. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 457, vol. iv. p. 431 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 451.)
3. A Pythagorean, contemporary with Lysis, the teacher of Epaminondas, about b. c. 380. There is a letter from Lysis to Hipparchus, remonstrating with him for teaching in public, which was contrary to the injunctions of Pythagoras. (Diog. Laert. viii. 42 ; lamblich. Vit. Pythag. 17 ; Synes. Epist. ad Heracl.) Clemens Alexandrinus tells us, that on the ground of his teaching in public, Hipparchus was expelled from the society of the Pythagoreans, who erected a monument to him, as if he had been dead. (Strom. v. p. 574; comp. Lycurg. adv. Leocr, 30.) Stobaeus (Serin, cvi.) has preserved a fragment from his book Ilepl €v6vfuas. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec* vol. i. pp. 847, 886.)
4. Of Stageira, a relation and disciple of Aristotle, who mentions him in his will. (Diog. Laert. v. 12.) Suidas (s. v.) mentions his works ti appev Kal &i}\v irapci rots beats and ris 6 yd'fios. Probably he is the same as the Hipparchus mentioned in the .will of Theophrastus, and the father of He-gesias. (Diog. Laert. v. 51, 56, 57.)
Other persons of the name are mentioned by Fabricius. (Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. p. 31.) [P. S.]
HIPPARCHUS ('Ivirapxos). We must give a few words to the explanation of our reason for deferring all such account of Hipparchus as his fame requires to another article. The first and greatest of Greek astronomers has left no work of his own which would entitle him to that character: it is entirely to Ptolemy that our knowledge of him is due. In this respect, the parallel is very close between him and two others of his race, each one of the three being the first of his order in point of time. Aesop and Menander would only have been known to us by report or by slight fragments, if it had not been for Phaedrus and Terence: it would have been the same with Hipparchus if it had not been for Ptolemy. Had it happened that Hipparchus had had two names, by the second of which Ptolemy, and Ptolemy only, had referred to him, we should have had no positive method of identifying the great astronomer with the writer of the commentary on Aratus. And if by any collateral evidence a doubt had been raised whether the two were not the same, it would probably have been urged with success that it was impossible the author of so comparatively slight a production could have been the sagacious mathematician and diligent observer who, by uniting those two charac-. ters for the first time, raised astronomy to that rank among the applications of arithmetic and geometry which it has always since preserved. This, is the praise to which the Hipparchus of the Syn-taxis is entitled ; and as this can only be ga-. thered from Ptolemy, it will be convenient to refer the most important part of the account of the former to the life of the latter ; giving, in this place, only as much as can be gathered from other sources. And such a course is rendered more desirable by the