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erroneously call him, Horus), there is still extant a work on hieroglyphics, entitled ''\\oavos Net-Aftfof lepoy\v<j)iKoi. The work purports to be a Greek translation, made by one Philippus from the Egyp­tian. It consists of two books, and contains a series of explanations of hieroglyphics, and is of great importance to those who study hieroglyphics, for it refers to the very forms which are still seen on Egyptian monuments, which show that the work was written by. a person who knew the monuments well, and had studied them with care. The second book is inferior to the first, and is probably dis­figured by later interpolations. Whether the whole is the production of the grammarian who lived under Theodosius, or of some other person of the name, cannot be decided ; but that the writer was a native of Egypt can scarcely be doubted, from the nature of the work. As for the time at which it was written, it seems probable that he lived about the beginning of the fifth century. Who the Greek translator Philippus was, is quite uncertain; some even believe that he was a Greek of the fifteenth century, and that the interpolations in the second book must be ascribed to him ; but there appears to be no good reason for placing him at so late a period. The work was first printed in the collection of Greek fabulists, by Aldus, Venice, 1505, fol.; se­parate editions are those of Paris (1521, 8vo., witty a Lat. translation by Trebatius), of J. Mercer (Paris, 1548, 4to., 1551, 8vo.), D. Hoschel (Augs­burg, 1595, 4to.), de Pauw (Utrecht, 1727, 4to., contains the notes of the previous editors) ; but the best critical edition, with an extensive commentary, is that of Conr. Leemans (Amsterdam, 1835, 8vo.), who has accompanied his edition with valuable prolegomena. (Comp. Lenormant, Recherclies sur POrigine, §c., et VUtilite actuelle des Hierogly-phiques (THorapollon, Paris, 1838,8vo.; Goulianoff, Essais sur les Hieroglyph. cFHorapollon, Paris, 1827, 4to. ; A. S. Corey, Tlie Hieroglyphics of florapotto, London, 1840, 8vo. ; Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in dcr Weltgesch. vol. i. p. 402, &c.) [L. S.]

HORATIA, was the daughter of P. Horatius, an'd sister of the three Horatii who fought with the Curiatii of Alba. Horatia was betrothed to a Curiatius, and when she saw her surviving brother returning in triumph, and bearing the bloody mantle of her lover, she burst forth into wailing and reproaches. Her brother, in his wrath at her untimely grief, stabbed Horatia to the heart, and her father denied her sepulture in the burying-place of the Horatii. (Dionys. iii. 21; Liv. i. 26; Plut. Paratt. Gr. et Rom. 16; Flor. i. 3; SchoL Bob. in Cic. Milonian. p. 277, Orelli.) [ W. B. D.]

HORATIA GENS, was an ancient patrician family at Rome (Lydus, de Mensur. iv. 1), belong­ing to the third tribe, the Luceres, and one of the lesser houses. (Dionys. v. 23.) It traced its origin to the hero Horatus, to whom an oak wood was dedicated (Id. v. 14) ; and from its affinity with the Curiatii of Alba, seems to have been of Latin race. Some writers indeed described the Horatii as Albans, and as the champions of Alba in the combat with the Curiatii. (Liv. i. 24.) But the story of the triple combat generally assigned the Horatii to Rome. (Liv. I.e.; Dionys. iii. 12; Plut. Parall. Gr. et Rom. 16 ; Flor. i. 3; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 4 ; Zonar. vii. 6.) There are some indications of rivalry between the Valeria gens and the Horatia (Dionys. v. 35 ; Liv. ii. 8); and since the Valerii were of Sabellian extraction


(Plut. Num. 5; Dionys. ii. 46, v. 12), the feud may have been national as well as political. In the division of the Roman people (populus and plebs) by Servius Tullius into Agrarian tribes, one of the tribes was the Horatia. Monuments of the Ho­ ratia gens were the "sacer campus Horatiorum" (Mart. Epigr. iii. 47) ; the " Horatii Pila," or trophy of the victory over the Alban brethren (Dionys. iii. 21; Liv. i. 26; Schol. Bob. in Cic. Milonian. p. 277, Orelli) ; the tomb of Horatia, built near the Porta Capena of squared stone (Liv. i. 26) ; the graves of the two Horatii near Alba, extant in the 6th century of Rome (Liv. L c.; Nre- buhr, ft. H. vol. i. note 870) ; and the " Sororium Tigillum," or Sister's Gibbet. (Fest. s. v. Soror. TigilL ; Dionys. iii. 22; Liv. I. c.) The Horatia Gens had the surnames barbatus, cocles, pul- villus. A few members of the gens are men­ tioned without a cognomen. [W. B. D.]

HORATIUS, 1. P. (Liv. i. 26 ; Zonar. vii, 6), M. (Dionys. iii. 28—32 ; Cic. pro Mil. 3), was the father of the three brethren who fought at Alba. He pronounced his daughter justly slain, and his verdict tended much to his son's acquittal. (Dionys. Liv. II. cc.)

2. P., son of the preceding, and survivor of the three brethren who fought with the three Curiatii for the supremacy of Rome over Alba. When his two brothers had fallen, Horatius was still unhurt, and by a pretended flight vanquished his three wounded opponents, by encountering them severally. Horatius returned in triumph, bearing his threefold spoils. As he approached the Capene gate his sister [horatia] met him, and recognised on his shoulders the mantle of one of the Curiatii, her betrothed lover. Her importunate grief drew on her the wrath of Horatius, who stabbed her, exclaiming " so perish every Roman woman who bewails a foe." For this murder he was adjudged by the duumviri to be scourged with covered head, and hanged on the hapless tree. Horatius appealed to his peers, the burghers or populus ; and his father pronounced him guiltless, or he would have punished him by the paternal power. The populus acquitted Horatius, but prescribed a form of punish­ment. With veiled head, led by his father, Horatius passed under a yoke or gibbet—tigillum sororium. (Fest. s. v. Soror. Tigillum, p. 297, ed. Miiller.) In memory of the crime and its expiation, the yoke was repaired from age to age, altars were raised to Juno Sororia and to Janus, and sacrifices were en­tailed on the Horatian family. In the war which shortly followed the combat of the three brethren, Horatius was entrusted by the king, Tullus Hosti-lius, with the destruction of Alba. (Dionys. iii. 13—22, 31; Liv. i. 24—26; Val. Max. vi. 3. § 6; Flor. i. 3; Cic. pro Mil. 3; S<%hol. Bob. in Milon. p. 277, ed. Orelli; Id. de Invent, ii. 20 ; Vic-torin. Cic. de Invent, i. 30; Plut. Parall. Min. 16; Aurel. Vict. de Vir. III. 4; Zonar. vii. 6.)

[W. B. D.]

Q. HORA'TIUS FLACCUS, was born on the 8th of December (vi. idus Decemb.), in the year b. c. 65, a. u. 689, during the consulship of L. Aurelius Cotta and L. Manlius Torquatus. The poet is his own biographer. The place of his birth, the station and occupation of his father, the prin­cipal events and the general character of his life, rest upon his own authority. His birthplace was on the doubtful confines of Lucania and Apulia, in the territory of the military colony Venusia.

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