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HORTENSIUS,

up such a stock of wine, that he left 10,000 casks of Chian to his heir (Plin. H. N. xiv. 6, 17). Here he had a park full of all sorts of animals; and it was customary, during his sumptuous dinners, for a slave, dressed like Orpheus, to issue from the woods with these creatures following the sound of his cithara (Varr. R. R. iii. 13). At Bauli he had immense fish-ponds, into which the sea came: the fish were so tame that they would feed from his hand ; none of them were molested, for he used to buy for his table at Puteoli; and he was so fond of them, that he is said to have wept for the death of a favourite muraena (Varr. R. R. iii. 17 ; Pirn. H. N. ix. 55). He was also very curious in trees: he is said to have fed them with wine, and we read that he once begged Cicero to change places in speaking, that he might perform this office for a favourite plane-tree at the proper time (Macrob. Saturn, ii. 9). In pictures also he must have spent large sums, at least he gave 144,000 sesterces for a single work from the hand of Cydias (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 40, § 26). It is a characteristic trait, that he came forward from his retirement (b. c. 55) to oppose the sumptuary law of Pompey and Crassus, and spoke so eloquently and wittily as to procure its rejection (Dion Cass. xxxix. 37). He was the first person at Rome who brought peacocks to table. (Plin. H. N. x. 23).

He was not happy in his family. By his first wife, the daughter of Catulus, he had one son (see below, No. 8). It was after the death of Lutatia that the curious transaction took place by which he bought or borrowed Marcia, the wife of Cato. [cato, No. 9, p. 648.] He is acquitted of sensual profligacy by Plutarch. (Cat. Mi. 25) ; though he wrote love-songs not of the most decent description. (Ov. Trist. ii. 441; Gell. xix. 9.)

8. Q. HORTENSIUS HORTALUS, Q. P. L. N.,

son of the great orator, by Lutatia. His education was probably little cared for, for Cicero attributes his profligacy to the corrupting influence of one Salvius, a freedman (ad Ait. x. 18). On his re­turn from his province, in b. c. 50, Cicero found him at Laodicea, living with gladiators and other low company (ad Att. vi. 3). From the expres­sions in the same place, it appears that his father had cast him off; and we learn from other authority that he purposed to make his nephew, Messalla, his heir, to the exclusion of this son. (Val. Max. v. 9. § 2.) However, he came in for part, at least, of his father's property ; for we find Cicero in­quiring what he was likely to offer for sale to satisfy his creditors (ad Att. vii. 3). However, in 49, the civil war broke out, and Hortensius seized on the opportunity to repair his ruined fortunes. He joined Caesar in Cisalpine Gaul, and was sent on by him to occupy Ariminum ; he therefore was the man who first 'actually crossed the Rubicon. (Plut. Caes. 32; Suet. Jul. 31.) Soon after he com­manded a cruising squadron on the coast of Italy, and received a letter from Curio, Caesar's lieutenant in Sicily, desiring him to favour the escape of Cicero. He visited Terentia, Cicero's wife, at their Cuman villa, and Cicero himself at his Pompeian, to assure them of his good offices (Cic. ad Att. x. 12, 16, 17); but he did not, or perhaps could not, keep his word. (Ib. 18). His squadron joined the fleet of Dolabella a little before the battle of Pharsalia.

[DOLABELLA, No. 8.]

In B. c. 44 he held the province of Macedonia, and Brutus was to succeed him. After Caesar's

HORUS.

assassination, M. Antony gave the province to Mo brother Caius. Brutus, however, had already taken possession, with the assistance of Hortensius. (Cic. Philipp. x. 6,11.) When the proscription took place, Hortensius was in the list; and in revenge he ordered C. Antonius, who had been taken pri­soner, to be put to death. [antonius, No. 13, p. 216.] After the battle of Philippi, he was executed on the grave of his victim.

9. Q. (?) hortensius corbio, Q. f. Q. n., son of the last, mentioned by Valerius Maximus as a person sunk in base and brutal profligacy (iii. 5, §4).

10. M. hortensius hortalus, Q. p. Q. n., brother of the last, and grandson of the orator. In the time of Augustus he was in great poverty. The emperor gave him enough to support a senator's rank, and promoted his marriage. Under Tiberius we find him, with four children, again reduced to poverty. (Tacit. Ann. ii. 37, 38; Suet. Aug. 41; Dion Cass. liv. 17.)

11. L. hortensius, legate of Sulla in the first Mithridatic war. He distinguished himself at Chaeroneiain the year b. c. 86. (Memnon, Fr. 32, 34, Orelli; Plut. Sutt. 15, 17, 19 ; Dion Cass. Fr. 125.) ^ [H. G. L.]

HORUS (Tnpos), the Egyptian god of the sun, whose worship was established very extensively in Greece, and afterwards even at Rome, although Greek astronomy and mystic philosophy greatly modified the original idea of Horus. He was com­ pared with the Greek Apollo, and identified with Harpocrates, the last-born and weakly son of Osiris. (Plut. de Is. et Os. 19.) Both were re­ presented as youths, and with the same attributes and symbols. (Artemid. Oneir. ii. 36 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 23 ; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Praep. Evang. v. 10 ; lamblich. de Myster. vii. 2.) He was believed to have been born with his finger on his mouth, as indicative of secrecy and mystery ; and the idea of something mysterious in general was connected with the worship of Horus-Harpocrates; the mystic philosophers of later times therefore found in him a most welcome subject to speculate upon. In the earlier period of his worship at Rome he seems to have been particularly regarded as the god of quiet life and silence (Varr. de L. L. iv. p. 17, Bip.; Ov. Met. ix. 691 ; Auson. Epist. ad Paid. xxv. 27), and at one time the senate forbade his worship at Rome, probably on account of excesses committed at the mysterious festivals ; but the suppression was not permanent. His identification with Apollo is as old as the time of Herodotus (ii. 144, 156; comp. the detailed mythuses in Diod. i. 25, &c. ; Plut. de Is. et Os. 12, &c.) The god acts a prominent part also in the mystic works attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ; but we cannot enter here into an examination of the nature of this Egyptian divinity, and refer the reader to Jablonsky, Panth. Aegypt. i. p. 244, &c>; Bunsen, Aegyptens Stelle in der Weltgescli. vol. i. p. 505, &c.,and other works on Egyptian mythology. _ [L. S.]

HORUS ftipos or Tnpos), according to Suidas, an Alexandrian grammarian, who taught at Con­stantinople, and wrote a great many works on grammatical subjects, which are now lost. It has been supposed that he is the same as the gram­marian Horapollo, but the works which Suidas attributes to Horus are different from those of Ho­rapollo. Macrobius (Sat. i. 7) mentions a Cynic philosopher of the name of Horus. . [L. S.J

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