Scanned text contains errors.
in order to be propitiated .(Serv. I. c.); and some related that at the wedding of Dionysus and Ariadne he sang the bridal hymn, but lost his voice. (Serv: 1. c.; comp. Scriptor. Rerum Mythic, pp. 26, 148, 229 ; Ov. Met. ii. 683, who makes him a son of Argus and Perimele ; Terent. Adelph. v. 7, 8.) According to the Orphic legends, the deceased Hymenaeus was called to life again by Asclepius. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 3.) He is represented in works of art as a youth, but taller and with a more serious expression than Eros, and carrying in his hand a bridal torch. (Hirt; Mytliol. Bilderb. ii. p. 224.) [L. S.]
HYMNIA ('Tjupfa), a surname of Artemis, under which she was worshipped throughout Arcadia. She had a temple between Orchomenus and Mantineia,and her priestess was at first always a virgin, till after the time of Aristocrates it was decreed that she should be a married woman. (Pans. via. 5. § 8, 12. § 3, 13. §§ 1, 4.) [L. S.]
HYPATIA ('TTra-ria), a lady of Alexandria, daughter of Theon, by whom she was instructed in philosophy and mathematics. She soon made such immense progress in these branches of knowledge, that she is said to have presided over the Neopla- tonician school of Plotinns at Alexandria, where she expounded the principles of his system to a numerous auditory. She appears to have been most graceful, modest, and beautiful, but neverthe less to have been a victim to slander and falsehood. She was accused of too much familiarity with Orestes, prefect of Alexandria,, and the charge spread among the clergy, who took up the notion that she interrupted the friendship of Orestes with their archbishop, Cyril. In consequence of this, a number of them, at whose head was a reader named Peter, seized her in the street, and dragged her from her chariot into one of the churches, where they stripped her and tore her to pieces. Theo- doret accuses Cyril of sanctioning this proceeding ; but Cave (Script. EccL Hist. Lit. vol. i.) holds this to be incredible, though on no grounds except his own opinion of Cyril's general character. Philo- storgius, the Arian historian, urges her death as a charge against the Homoousians. Synesius valued her greatly, and addressed to her several letters, inscribed rrj <f>i\off6<j)(p, in one of which he calls her mother, sister, mistress, and benefactress. Suidas says that she married Isidorus, and wrote some works on astronomy and other subjects. In Ste- phanus Baluzius (Concil. i. p. 216) an epistle is extant professing to be Hypatia's addressed to Cyril, in which she advocates the cause of Nesto- rius, and regrets his banishment; but this must be spurious, if it be true, as Socrates asserts that she was killed A. d. 415, for Nestorius was not ban ished till A. d. 436. (Socratvii. 15 ; Niceph.xiv. 16; Menage, Hist. Mulierum Philosoph. 49 ; Suidas, s. v. ; J. Ch. Wernsdorf, Dissertat. Acad. IV. de Hypatia, Viteberg. 1747.) [G. E. L. C.].
HYPATIUS, brother of Eusebia, wife of the emperor Constantius IT. His father had been consul, but he cannot be identified by name. Hy-patius was consul A. D. 359, and his brother Euse-bius was his colleague. Both were put to the torture, fined, and banished, by Valens, a.d. 374, on a charge of aspiring to the empire ; but the charge was found to be destitute of proof, and they were soon honourably recalled. Hypatius was praefectus urbi (at Rome) A. D. 379 ; and praefectus praetbrio •apparently in Italy (or rather, he was one of several
who held that office conjointly), in a. D. 382 and 383. He was a correspondent of Gregory Nazianzen (Epist. 192, or in Caillau's edit. 96), and is mentioned with high praise by Ammianus, with whom he appears to have been on terms of friendship. (Amm. Marc, xviii. 1, xxi. 6, xxix. 2 ; Greg. Na-zianz. Opera, vol. ii. p. 81, ed. Paris, 1840 ; Cod. Theodos. 11. tit. 16. § 13, 15. tit. 36. § 26; 12. tit. 1. § 99,100, et alibi; Gothofred, Prosop. Cod. Theod.; Ducange, FamiL Byzant. p. 48 ; Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. iv. pp. 380, 437, v. pp. 108, 168, 720.) Some other Hypatii are mentioned in theTheodosian code, but they do not require notice. [J. C. M.]
HYPATODORUS ('TTraTcftwpos), a statuary of Thebes (Boekh, Corp. Inscript. No. 25), who flourished, with Polycles I., Cephisodotus I., and Leochares, in the 102d Olympiad, b. c. 372. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19.) He made, with Aris- togeiton, the statues of the Argive chieftains who fought with Polyneices against Thebes. (Paus. x. 10. §2; comp. aristogbiton.) He also made the great statue of Athena at Aliphera in Arcadia (Paus. viii. 26. § 4), which is also mentioned by Polybius (iv. 78. § 5), who calls it the work of Hecatodorus and Sostratus, and describes it as rwv fi€ya\o(jL^p€(TrdT(i)V Kal r^x^iKwrdrtav epywv. An onyx has been found at Aliphera engraved with an Athena, which Miiller thinks may have been taken after this statue. (Archaol. d. Kunst, § 370, n. 4.) [P. S.]
HYPATUS ("TTraros), the most high, occurs not only as an epithet of Zeus in poetry (Horn. IL viii. 31, xix. 258), but as a real surname of the god. An altar of Zeus Hypatus existed at Athens in front of the Erechtheium ; and it was not allowed to offer up to him any thing alive or libations, but only cakes. (Paus. i. 26. § 6, viii. 2. § 1.) Zeus Hypatus was also worshipped at Sparta (iii. 17. § 3)j and near Glisas in Boeotia. (ix. 19. § 3.) [L. S.]
HYPEIROCHUS (<rfireipoxos), the name of two mythical personages, one a son of Priam, was killed by Odysseus (Horn. IL xi. 335; Apollod. iii. 12. $ 5), the other the father of Itymoneus, who is hence called Hypeirochides. (Horn. 11. xi. 672, &c.) [L. S.]
HYPERASIUS ('TTrepcknos), a son of Pelles and the husband of Hypso, by whom he became the father of Amphion and Asterius, or Deucalionj the Argonauts. (Apollon. Rhod. i. 176, &c.; Vat Flacc. i. 367.) [7* S]
HYPERBATAS,or HYPE'RBATUS ('ttt^ garas, Plut. ; 'TTrepgaros, Polyb.). 1. General of the Achaean league in b. c. 224, during the war with Cleomenes. It was under his nominal command, though the real direction of affairs was in the hands of Aratus, that the Achaeans met with the decisive defeat at Hecatomboeon. (Plut, Cleom. 14.)
2. General of the Achaeans in b. c. 179. The Romans having sent to require of *the league the recal of all the Lacedaemonian exiles without dis tinction, Hyperbatus held an assembly, in which he urged, in opposition to Lycortas, the necessity of compliance with this request (Polyb. xxvi. 1.) On this occasion he took the same side with Calli- crates, and we find him again, in b. c. 168, uniting with that unworthy statesman against the proposal of Lycortas and his party, to send assistance to the two Ptolemies in their war against Antiochus Epiphancs. (Id. xxix. 8.) £E.H B.J