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ehius, probably also the same, is mentioned in the letters of Symmachus. (Amm. Marc. xxvi. 8, with the notes of Valesius ; Libanius, Epist. 1285, 1286, et alibi, ed. Wolf; Greg. Nazianz. Opera, vol. ii. p. 113, ed. Caillau, Paris, 1840; Basil. Opera, vol. in. pars 2, p. 655, ed. Paris, 1839; Gothof. Prosop. Cod. Tfieodos.; Tillemont, Hist. des Emp. vol. v.)
2. A Greek grammarian of Alexandria, who lived in the time of the emperor Marcian (a. d. 450-457), and wrote some works on grammar, severally en.-titled, 1. Tex*>^ 7pajujuaTWoji ; 2. Tlepl dvojudrtw • and 3. Tlepl ^fiaros Kal 6pQoypa<f>ias. He was banished by the emperor Leo I., successor of Marcian. (Suidas, s. v. Aewp 6 McweAA.Tjs, 'Tire/sextos ; Fabr. Bibl. Gr. vol. vi. p. 370.) [J. C. M.]
HYPERENOR ("XVe/^Voy)), one of the Spar-tae, or the men that grew up from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus, was worshipped as a hero at Thebes. (Apollod. iii. 4. § 1; Paus. ix. 5. § 1; Hygin. Fab. 178.) There are two other mythical personages of this name, one a son of Poseidon and Alcyone (Apollod. iii. 10. § 1), and the other a son of the Trojan Panthous, who was slain by Menelaus. (Horn. II. xiv. 516, xvii. 24.) [L. S.]
HYPERES ('Tire'pijs). 1. A son of Poseidon and Alcyone, and king of Troezene, from whom the town of Hypereia derived its name. (Paus. ii. 30. $ 7.) The island of Calauria, off the coast of Troezene, was likewise believed to have received from him the name of Hypereia (Plut. Quaest. Gr. 19). Stephanus Byzantinus (s.v. 'YTrep^cria) and Eusta-thius (ad Horn. pp. 291, 332) call him a son of Lycaon.
HYPERIDES ('rirepelSris or 'Tire^s), a celebrated Attic orator, was the son of Glaucippus, and belonged to the Attic demus of Collytus. He was a friend of Demosthenes, and with him and Lycurgus he was at the head of the anti-Macedonian party. His birth-year is unknown, but he must have been of about the same age-as Lycurgus, who was born in b. c. 396. (Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 848, d.; Diog. Laert. iii. 46.) Throughout his public career he joined the patriots with the utmost determination and his whole soul, and remained faithful to them to the last, and through all the dangers and catastrophes by which Athens was weighed down successively under Philip, Alexander, and Antipater. This stedfast adherence to the good'cause may have been owing in a great measure to the" influence which his friend Demosthenes and Lycurgus exercised upon him, for he seems to have naturally been a person of a vacillating character; and ?£lutarch (/. c. p. 849, d.) states that he some-times' gave way to his passions, which were not always of the noblest kind. (Comp. Athen. viii. p. 243, xiii. p. 590.) In philosophy he was a pupil of Plato (Diog. Laert. iii. 46), and Isocrates trained and developed his oratorical talent. (Athen. viii. p. 342 ; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 260, p. 487.) He began his career by conducting lawsuits of others in the courts of justice. (Plut. 1. c. p. 448, e») Our information respecting his life is very meagre, but it seems that he first displayed his patriotic feelings in b. c. 358, by the sacrifices he made for the public good during the expedition against Euboea, for on that occasion he and his son are said to have
equipped two triremes at their own expense. (Plut. /. c. p. 849, f. ; comp. Dem. de Coron. p. 259, in Mid. p. 566.) In the same spirit he acted on an embassy to Rhodes (Plut. I. c* p. 850, a.), in b. c. 346, when he, like Demosthenes, took up the prosecution against the treacherous Philocrates (Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 276), in the expedition against Byzantium, in b. c. 340 (Plut. p. 848, e.)^ and more especially in b. c. 338, after the fatal battle of Chaeroneia, when Hyperides, with the view of making a desperate resistance against Philip, proposed that all women and children should be taken to Peiraeeus, that the slaves should be emancipated, that the resident aliens should receive the rights of citizens, and that all who were labouring under atimia should be restored to their former rights. (Lycurg. c. Leocrat. § 41 ; Dem. c. Aristog. ii. p. 803; Plut. p. 848, f.) The plan was not carried into effect, on account of the general despondency which then prevailed at Athens, but the good intentions of Hyperides were rewarded and acknowledged by his fellow-citizens; for when the sycophant Aristogeiton brought an accusation against him for his proposal, the people acquitted him. Philip's death inspired the patriots with new hopes, and Hyperides, though we have no express testimony for it, must be supposed to have joined those who were resolved to shake off the Macedonian yoke, and with this view formed an alliance with Thebes, for he was afterwards one of those whose surrender was demanded by Alexander. (Arrian, Anab. i. 10. § 7.) This danger passed over, but Hyperides was not intimidated, and he again ventured to oppose the Macedonians, when their king demanded of the Athenians to furnish him with ships for his expedition against Persia. (Plut. p. 848, d ; comp. p. 847, c.) The unfortunate disturbances caused by the arrival of Harpalus at Athens in b. c. 324 seem to have disturbed the friendly relation which until then had existed between Hyperides and Demosthenes ; for we find him in the equivocal position of a public accuser of Demosthenes. (Plut. p. 846, c. 848, f.; Lucian, Encom. Dem. 31.) Plutarch states that Hyperides was found to have been the only man who had not received any money from Harpalus ; and it may therefore be that he was compelled to act the part of an accuser, or he may have hoped to be able to give to the matter a more favourable turn for Demosthenes, by coming forward as accuser. But this whole transaction is involved in great obscurity ; all we can safely say is, that about this time there was a sort of rupture between the two orators, but whether it existed previous to the arrival of Harpalus, or whether it was brought about by the disputes respecting Harpalus, is uncertain. Afterwards, however, Hyperides and Demosthenes became reconciled. (Plut. p. 849, b.) His political conduct, however, was not affected by the enmity with Demosthenes. When the news of Alexander's death arrived at Athens, Hyperides is said to have proposed that a crown should be given to lollas, who was believed to have poisoned the king (Plut. p. 849, e, Alex. 77 ; Arrian, Anab. vii. 27) ; but this account is very doubtful, though it is certain ,that it was mainly owing-to his exertions that the Lamian war was brought about (Plut. Plioc. 23, Vit. X. Orat. pp. 848, e, 849, b ; Jus tin, xiii. 5), and after the death of Leosthenes, he delivered the funeral oration upon those who had fallen in the war. (Dipd, xviii. 3.) . But after