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On this page: Hyperion – Hypermnestra – Hyperoche – Hyperochus – Hypnos – Hypsaeus

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HYPERIDES,

the battle of Crannon, in b. c. 322, when all hopes had vanished, Hyperides fled to Aegina, where he was overtaken by the emissaries of Antipater,. and put to death in a most cruel manner. (Plut. Phoc. 29, Dem. 28, Vit. X. Orat. p. 849; Phot. Bill. Cod. 265.)

Hyperides must have appeared before the public on many occasions, both in the courts of justice and in the assembly of the people. The number of orations attributed to him was seventy-seven, but even the ancient critics rejected twenty-five of them as spurious. (Plut. p. 849, d.) The titles of sixty-one (for more are not known) are enumerated by Westermann (Gescli. d. Griech. Beredtsamk. p. 307, &c.). The most important among them appear to have 'been the AijAia/co's (Dem. de Coron. p. 271 ; Plut. pp. 840, c, 850, a), the eirirdfios (of which a considerable fragment is preserved in Sto-baeus, Floril. cxxiv. 36), the orations against Aristogeiton, Demades, Demosthenes, and for Phryne. But of all these orations none has come .down to us, and all we have is a considerable number of fragments, few of which are of any length. Some critics have supposed that the oration irepl rwv irpbs 'AAelaz/Spo*/ ffvvQv\K&v^ which is printed among those of Demosthenes, is the work of Hyperides, as is suggested by Libanius in his argument to it; and the same was believed by Reiske in regard to the first oration against Aris­togeiton, but there is nothing to prove that either of these speeches is the work of Hyperides. Hopes 'have been raised from time to time of the possibility of recovering some or all the orations of Hyperides. J. A. Brassicanus (Praef. ad Salvianum\ who lived at the beginning of the seventeenth century, states that he himself saw at Ofen, in the library of king Mathias Corvinus, a complete copy of Hy­perides, with numerous scholia. Taylor (Praef. ad 'Demosih. vol. iii.) likewise states that he saw a MS. containing some orations of Hyperides, but nothing has yet been published, and it seems that Brassicanus as well as Taylor was mistaken. As therefore we have nothing to form an independent opinion on the merits of Hyperides as an orator, we must acquiesce in the judgment which some of the ancients have pronounced upon him. That he was regarded as a great orator is attested by the fact of his speeches being incorporated in the canon of the ten Attic orators, and of several distinguished grammarians, such as Didymus of Alexandria and Aelius Harpocration, having written commentaries upon them. (Harpocrat. s. v. €\€vdepios Zeus ; Suid. s. v. cAp7ro/cpaTi«i>.) Hyperides did not bind himself to any particular model; his oratory was graceful and powerful, thus holding the middle be­tween the gracefulness of Lysias and the over­whelming power of Demosthenes. (Dionys. Di-narch. 1 ; Longin. de Sublim. xxxiv. 1, &c.) His delivery is said to have been wanting in liveliness. (Plut. p. 850, a.) His style and diction were pure Attic, though not quite free from a certain manner­ism, especially in certain words ; in the selection and arrangement of his words he is said to have been less careful. (Cic. Brut. 82, 84 ; Quintil. xii. 10. § 22; Hermog. de Form. Orat. iL 11 ; Dionys. DinarcJi. 7 ; Longin. I. c.) He treated the subjects under discussion with great skill and a ready wit, and, although he sometimes had the appearance of carelessness, the exposition of his subject and the argumentation are spoken of as de­serving of imitation. (Cic. Orat. 31, de Orat. iii.

HYPSAEUS.

7 ; Hermog. 1. c.; Dionys. Din. 5, 6.) But his orations were distinguished above all by their ex­ quisite elegance and gracefulness, which were calr culated to produce a momentary rather than a lasting and moral impression. In his private life, Hyperides seems to have been less above censure than in his political life, for .his loose conduct was attacked by Timocles and Philetaerus, two comic poets of the time. (Athen.'viii. pp. 341, 342, xiii. p. 590.) He seems also to have been particularly partial to the fair sex, and that at the expense of his own son Glaucippus. (Alciphr. Epist. 30— 32; comp. Westermann, Ibid. §§ 60, 61; G.Kiess- ling, de Hyperide Orat. Att. Gommentat. //., Hild- burghausen, 1837, 4to. ; Droysen, Gescli. des Hel­ lenism, vol. i. pp. 70, 705, &c.) [L. S.]

HYPERION ("XVepiW), a Titan, a son of Uranus and Ge, and married to his sister Theia, or Euryphaessa, by whom he became the father of Helios, Selene, and Eos. (Hes. Theog. 134, 371, &c.; Apollod. i. 1. § 3, 2. § 2.) Homer uses the name in a patronymic sense applied to Helios, so that it is equivalent to Hyperionion or Hyperion- ides ; and Homer's example is imitated also by other poets. (Horn. Od. i. 8, xii. 132, II. viii. 480; Hes. Tlieog. 1011 ; Ov. Met. xv. 406.) Apollo- dorus (iii. 12. § 5) mentions a son of Priam of the name of Hyperion. [L. S.]

HYPERMNESTRA ('TTre/m^Vrpa), a daugh­ ter of Thestius and Eurythemis, and the wife of Oicles, by whom she became the mother of Amphi- araus. Her tomb was shown at Argos. (Apollod. i. 7. § 10; Paus. ii. 21. § 2.) One of the daughters of Danaus was likewise called Hypermnestra. [lynceus.] . [L. S.]

HYPEROCHE ('TTrcpoxr?), according to the Delian tradition, was one. of the two maidens who were sent by the Hyperboreans to Delos, to convey thither certain sacred offerings, enclosed in stalks of wheat. She and her companion having died in Delos, were honoured by the Delians with certain ceremonies, described by Herodotus (iv. 33— 35). [C. P. M.]

HYPEROCHUS ("firepoxos), the generally acknowledged author of a metrical account of Cumae, ' mentioned by Athenaeus (xii. p. 528, d.), and Pau-sanias (x. 12. § 8), who refers to what he had written respecting the Cumaean sybil. [C. P. M.]

HYPNOS. [somnus.]

HYPSAEUS, a cognomen of the Plautia Gens at Rome. 1. C. plautius venno hypsaeus, was consul for the first time in b.c. 347. His year of office was memorable for the reduction of the interest on loans to the twenty fourth part of the sum borrowed, or 4 and one-sixth per cent. Hypsaeus was consul again in b. c. 341, when the war with Privernum and with the Volscian league was committed to him. He defeated the Priver-natians, and took from them two-thirds of their public land, and he compelled the Volscians to re­treat, ravaged their territory as far as the sea-coast, and consecrated the arms of the slain " Luae Ma-tri." (Liv. vii. 27, viii. 1.)

2. L. plautius hypsaeus, was praetor in b.c. 189, and obtained the Nearer Spain for his province. (Liv. xxxvii. 47, 50.)

3. L. plautius hypsaeus, a son probably of the preceding, was praetor in Sicily during the Servile War, b.c. 134—132, and routed by the insurgent slaves. (Flor. iii. 19. § 7.)

4* .M, plautius hypsaeus, consul in b. c.

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