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tFortuna (s. De Vita) swa, our knowledge of Icarius is derived. (Comp. Tillemont, Hist, des Emp. vol. . v. p. 108, &g. 227, &c.) [ J. C. M.]
• body wingsv made of wax, and advised him not to ,fly too high ; but Icarus, forgetting the advice of . his father, flew so high that the sun melted the ' wings, and Icarus fell down into the sea, which was called after him, the Icarian. (Ov. Met. viii. 195 ; Hygin. Fab. 40«) His body, which was washed on shore, was said to have been buried by Heracles. (Paus. ix. 11.) The ancients explained the fable of the wings of Icarus, by understanding by it the invention of sails; and in fact some traditions stated that Daedalus and Icarus fled from Crete in a ship. Diodoms (iv. 77) relates that Icarus, while ascending into the air in the island of Icaria, fell down through his carelessness, and
•was drowned. Respecting the connection of Icarus with the early history of art, see daedalus. [L. S.] I'CCIUS. 1. A noble of Rheims in Gallia Bel-gica, who headed a deputation of his townsmen to Caesar in b. c. 57, placing their state at Caesar's disposal, and praying his aid against the other Belgic communities then in arms against Rome. Iccius defended Bibrax (Bievre) against the other tribes of the Belgae immediately after his return from Caesar's quarters. (Caes. B. G. ii. 3, 6.)
2. M., was appointed praetor of Sicily by M. Antony just before the departure of the latter for Cisalpine Gaul, in November, b. c. 44. (Cic. Phil. iii. 10.)
3. A friend of Horace, who addressed to him an ode (Carm. i. 29), and an epistle (Ep. i. 12). The ode was written in b. c. 25, when Iccius was pre paring to join Aelius Gallus [gallus, aelius] in his expedition to Arabia, and in it Horace dis suades Iccius from quitting security and philo sophy, for doubtful gains and certain hardships. The epistle was composed about ten years after wards, when Iccius had become Vipsanius Agrippa's steward in Sicily, and had resumed his philoso phical studies, without, however, acquiring the art of content. In both poems Horace reprehends point edly, but delicately, in Iccius an inordinate desire for wealth. The immediate occasion of the epistle was to introduce Pompeius Grosphus [grosphus] to Iccius. Iccius has been defended from the im putation of avarice by Jacobs (Rliein. Mus. ii. 1, Verm. Sclir. v. p. 1— 30). [W.B.D.]
ICCUS cikkos). 1. Of Tarentum, a distinguished athlete and teacher of gymnastics. Pau-sanias (vi. 10. § 2) calls him the best gymnast of his age, that is, of the period about 01. 77, or b. c. 470 ; and Plato also mentions him with great praise (de Leg. viii. p. 840, Protag. p. 316, with the Schol.; comp. Lucian, Quomodo Hist, sit con-scrib. 35; Aelian, V. H. xi. 3). He looked upon temperance as the fruit of gymnastic exercises, and was himself a model of temperance. lambli-chus (Vit. PytJiag. 36) calls him a Pythagorean, and, according to Themistius (Orat. xxiii. p. 350, ed. Dindorf), Plato reckoned him among the sophists.
gods, says Ovid (Met. xi. 640), called him Icelus, but men called him Phobetor. [L. S.]
ICELUS, MARCIA'NUS, a freedman of Galba, who was arrested by Nero on the first tidings of his patron's defection, but released when the revolt against the emperor extended to Rome. Having given up Nero's body to his freed- women for sepulture, Icelus hurried from Rome to Clunia in Hispania Tarraconensis with the news of Nero's death, and of Galba's nomination to the empire by the army and the senate, A. d. 68. His earnest representations removed Galba's fears, and he rewarded Icelus with the rank and golden ring of an eques, and with the honorary addition of Marcianus to his former name. Icelus was the most ignoble, the most powerful, and not the least rapacious of Galba's freedmen and favourites. (Plut. Galb. 7 ; comp. Dion Cass. Ixiv. 2.) In the parties that' divided the imperial council he supported Cornelius Laco, the praetorian prefect [laco], and with him opposed the adoption of M. Salvius Otho. After Galba's murder, which was perhaps accelerated by Icelus' advice, Icelus was executed by Otho's command as a libertinus, with out regard to his new equestrian dignity. (Tac. Hist. i. 13, 33, 37, 46, ii. 95; Suet. Ner. 49, Galb. 14,22.) [W.B.D.]
ICHNAEA ('I%ra?a), that is, the tracing god dess, occurs as a surname of Themis, though in her case it may have been derived from the town of Ichnae, where she was worshipped (Horn. Hymn, in Apoll. Del. 94 ; Lycoph. 129 ; Strab. ix. p. 435 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. vlx^ai), and a surname of Nemesis. (Brunck, Anal. ii. pp. 1. 86.) [L. S.]
ICHTHYAS('IxMas),the son of Metallus,and a disciple of Euclid of Megara, is spoken of as a distinguished man, to whom Diogenes the .cynic inscribed a dialogue. (Diog. Laert. ii. 112 ; Athen. viii. p. 335, a.)
ICHTHYOCENTAURUS ('Ixfluo/c^Taupos), that is, a fish-centaur, or a particular kind of Tri ton. Ichthyocentauri were fabulous beings, the upper part of whose body was conceived to have a human form, and the lower that of a fish, while the place of the hands was occupied by a horse's feet* They differed from the ordinary Tritons by the fact that the latter were simply half men and half fish, and had not the feet of horses. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 34, 886, 892.) [L. S.]
ICILIA GENS, plebeian, distinguished in tha early history of the republic for its resistance to the patricians, and its support of the liberties of the plebeians. Many members of the gens bore the surname of ruga, but as they are more frequently mentioned without than with this cognomen, they are all given under icilius.
ICILIUS. 1. sp. icilius, was one of the three envoys sent by the plebeians, after their secession to the Sacred Mount, to treat with the senate. (b. c. 494.) He does not appear to have been elected one of the first tribunes, upon the establishment of the office in b. c. 493 ; but he was chosen tribune of the plebs for the following year (b. c. 492). In his tribunate he vehemently attacked the senate on account of the dearness of provisions, and as the patricians attempted to put him down, he introduced and procured the enactment of a law ordaining, that whosoever should interrupt a tribune when addressing the people, should give security to the tribunes for the payment of whatsoever fine they might inflict upon him, and that if he refused