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IPHICRATES.

and even gave his daughter in marriage to Meiies-theus, the son of Iphicrates by the daughter of Cotys. Rehdantz {vi. § 7) supposes the word &jfias to be used with reference to the threatened prosecution in a wide sense and with pretty nearly the meaning of irpofiocrias ; but it may have been adopted to imply that Iphicrates had made himself in fact an alien, and had no longer any claim to the privileges of Athenian citizenship. Iphicrates, however, would not go so far as to assist Cotys in taking the towns which were actually in the pos­session of the Athenians; and feeling that his refusal made his residence in his father-in-law's dominions no longer safe, while, from his previous conduct, a return to Athens would be equally dan­gerous, he withdrew to Antissa first, and thence to the city (A/wy) which he had himself built. (Dem. c. Tim. p. 1204, c. Arist. pp. 663, 664, 673, &c. ; Nep. fph. 3.) After the death of Chabrias, Iphicrates, Timotheus, and Meriestheus were joined with Chares as commanders in the Social War, and were prosecuted by their unscrupulous coir league, either because they had refused to risk an engagement (for which he was anxious) in a storm, or because he wished to screen himself, from the consequences of his own rashness in actually en­gaging [chares]. The prosecution was conducted by Aristophon, the Azenian. Iphicrates and his son were .brought to trial first, and appear to have endeavoured to shift the danger from Timotheus by taking all the responsibility on themselves. According to the author of the lives of the Ten Orators (Lys. ad fin.), the speech in which Iphi­crates defended himself was written for him by Lysias ; but the soldierlike boldness of the oration, as described by Dionysius (de Lys. p. 480), and exemplified in the .extract given by Aristotle (Rhet. ii. 23, § 7), seems to : show that the accused was probably himself the author of it. He does not seem, however, to have trusted entirely either to his eloquence or to the justice of his cause, for we near that he introduced into the: court a body of partisans armed with daggers, and that he himself took care that the judges should see his sword daring the triaL He and Menestheus were ac­quitted : Timotheus was arraigned afterwards, pro­bably in the following year (b.c. 354), and con­demned to a heavy fine. From the period of his trial Iphicrates seems to have lived quietly at Athens. The exact date of his death is not known, but Demosthenes (c. Meid* p. 534) speaks of him as no longer alive at that time (b. c. 348). (Diod. xvi. 21; Nep. Iph. 3, Tim. 3 ; Deinarch. c. Philocl. p. 110^ Polyaen. iii. 9; Arist. Rhet. iii. 10, § 7 ; Quint, v. 10, § 12 ; Senec. Exc. Cat. vi. 5 ; Isocr. vepl 'Am$. § 137 ; Rehdantz, vii. § 7.)

Iphicrates has been commended for his combined prudence and energy as a general. The worst words, he said, that a commander could utter were, " I should not have expected it," — ovk &v irpoa1^ So/cijo-a. (Pluf. Apoph. Iph. 2 ; Dem. Prooem. p. 1457 ; Polyaen. iii. 9.) Like Chabrias and Chares, he was fond of residing abroad (Theopomp. ap. Atlien. xii. p. 532, b), and we have seen that he did not allow considerations of patriotism to stand in the way of his advancement by a foreign service and alliance. Yet we do not find the Athenians depriving him of the almost unprecedented -honours with which they had loaded him, and of which one Harmodius (a descendant, it seems, of the mur-clerer of Hipparchus) had endeavoured to strip

IPHIGENEIA.

him by a prosecution. We do not know at what period this case was tried ; but it was probably in b. c. 371, after the return of Iphicrates from the Ionian Sea. (Dem. c. Arist. p. 663—665; Plut Apoph. Iph. 5 ; Arist. Rhet. ii. 23. §§ 6, 8 ; Pseudo-Plut. Vit. X. Orat.Lys. ad fin.; Rehdantz, vi. §2.) If the Athenians had a strong sense of his value, he appears on his part to have presumed upon it not a little. He had also, however, in all probability, a strong party in Athens (for his friendly connection with Lysias see above), and the circumstances of the times would always throw considerable power into the hands of a leader of mercenary troops. [E. E.]

IPHICRATES ('IQiKpdrris), a son of the above, was one of the ambassadors sent from Greece to Dareius Codomannus. With his colleagues he fell into the hands of Parmenion, at Damascus, after the battle of Issus (b. c. 333). Alexander treated him honourably, from a wish to conciliate the Athenians as well as from - respect to his father's memory : and on his death (which was a natural one) he sent his bones to his relatives at Athens.? (Arr. Anab. ii. 15 ; Curt. iii. 10.) [E. E.J

IPHICRATES, statuary. [amphicbates.] _ IPHI'DAMAS ('I</u5c*,uas). 1. A son of Bu-siris, whom Heracles ordered to be put to death together with his father. (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iv. 1396.) Apollodorus (ii. 5. $ 11) calls him Amphidamas.

2. A Trojan hero, a son of Antenor and Theano, the daughter of Cisseus. He was a brother of Coon, together with whom he was slain by Aga­memnon in the Trojan war. (Horn. II. xi. 221, &c. ; Paus. iv. 36. § 2.)

3. A son of Aleus (Orph. Arg. 148), but he is commonly called Amphidamas. [L. S.]

IPHIGENEIA ('tyiyeveta), according to the most common tradition, a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra (Hygin. Fab. 98), but, accord­ing to others, a daughter of Theseus and Helena, and brought up by Clytaemnestra only as a foster-child. (Anton. Lib. 27 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 183.) Agamemnon had once killed a stag in the grove of Artemis, or had boasted that the goddess herself could not hit better, or, according to another story, in the year in which Iphigeneia was born, he had vowed to sacrifice the most beautiful thing which that year might produce, but had afterwards neglected to fulfil his vow. Either of these cir­cumstances is said to have been the cause of the calm which detained the Greek fleet in the port of Aulis, when the Greeks wanted to sail against Troy. The seer Calchas, or, according to others, the Delphic oracle, declared that the sacrifice of Iphigeneia was the only means of propitiating Artemis. Agamemnon at first resisted the com­mand, but the entreaties of Menelaus at length prevailed upon him to give way, and he consented to Iphigeneia being fetched by Odysseus and Dio-medes, under the pretext that she was to be married to Achilles. When Iphigeneia had arrived, and was on the point of being sacrificed, Artemis carried her in a cloud to Tauris, where she was made to serve the goddess as her priestess, while a stag, or, according to others, a she-bear, a bull, or an old woman, was substituted in her place and sacrificed. (Eurip. Iphig. Taur. 10—30, 783, Iphig. Aul. 1540, &c. ; Welcker, Die Aescliyl. Trilog. p. 408, &c.; Suid. s.'v. TlevOepds.) Accord­ing to Dictys Cretensis (i. 19, &c.), Iphigeneia

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