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futation, as it is clear that he was called /?wfe# front giving information (indicium) respecting the con­spiracy. (Comp. Cic. ad Att. ii. 24,—Vettius ille, ille nosier index.) It would appear, from the obverse of the coin, that this T. Vettius Judex had an agnomen Sabinus. (Eckhel, v. p. 336.)

COIN OP T. VETTIUS JUDEX.

JUGA or JUGA'LIS, that is, the goddess of marriage, occurs as a surname of Juno, in the same sense as the Greek %vyia. She had a temple under this name in the forum at Rome, below the capitol, and the street which there took its commencement was called vicus Jugarius. (August, de Civ. Dei, iv. 8, 11, vi. 9 ; Festus, p. 104, ed. Muller.) [L. S.]

JUGURTHA ('lovyofyeas or Sl<>7op0as), king of Numidia, was a grandson of Masinissa, being a son of his youngest son, Mastanabal; but on ac­count of his illegitimate birth, his mother being only a concubine, he was neglected by his grand­father, and remained in a private situation so long as Masinissa lived. But when Micipsa succeeded to the throne (b. c. 149), he adopted his nephew, and caused him to be brought up with his own sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself both by his abilities and his skill in all bodily exercises, and rose to so much favour and popularity with the Numidians, that he began to excite the .jealousy of Micipsa, who be­came apprehensive lest he should eventually sup­plant his two sons. In order to remove him to a distance, and not without a hope that he might perish in the war, Micipsa sent him, in b. c. 134, with an auxiliary force, to assist Scipio against Numantia : but this only proved to the young man a fresh occasion of distinction: by his zeal, courage, and ability, he gained the favour not only of his commander, but of all the leading nobles in the Roman camp, by many of whom he was secretly stimulated to nourish ambitious schemes for ac­quiring the sole sovereignty of Numidia ; and not­withstanding the contrary advice of Scipio, these counsels seem to have sunk deep into the mind of Jugurtha. On his return he was received with every demonstration of honour by Micipsa ; nor did he allow his ambitious projects to break forth during the lifetime of the old man. Micipsa, on his death-bed, though but too clearly foreseeing what would happen, commended the two young princes to the care of Jugurtha: but at the very first interview which took place between them after his decease (b. c. 118), their dissensions broke out with the utmost fierceness. Shortly after, Jugurtha found an opportunity to surprise and assassinate Hiempsal in his lodging at Thir-mida [hiempsal] ; whereupon Adherbal and his partisans rushed to arms, but were defeated in battle.by Jugurtha ; and Adherbal himself fled for refuge to. the Roman province, from whence he hastened to Rome, to lay his cause before the senate. Jugurtha had now the opportunity, for the first time, of putting to the test that which he

JUGURTHA.

in the camp before Numantia, of the venality and corruption of the Roman nobility : hes sent ambassadors to Rome to counteract by a lavisli distribution of bribes the effect of the just com­plaints of Adherbal; and by these means suc­ceeded in averting the indignation of the senate* A decree was, however, passed for the division of the kingdom of Numidia between the two com­petitors, and a committee of senators sent to en­force its execution ; but as soon as these arrived in Africa, Jugurtha succeeded in gaining them over by the same unscrupulous methods, and obtained in the partition of the kingdom the western divi­sion, adjacent to Mauritania, by far the larger and richer portion of the two (b. c. 117). But this ad­vantage was far from contenting him; and notwith­standing the obvious danger of disturbing an arrangement so formally established by the Roman government, he directed all his efforts to the ac­quisition of the whole. For this purpose, he con­tinually harassed the frontiers of the neighbouring kingdom by predatory incursions, in hopes of inducing Adherbal to repress these petty assaults by arms, and of thus obtaining an excuse for re­presenting him as the aggressor. But this plan being frustrated by the patience and steadiness with which Adherbal adhered to a pacific and de­fensive system, Jugurtha at length threw aside all restraint, and invaded his territories with a large army. Adherbal was defeated in the first conflict, his camp taken, and he himself with difficulty made his escape to the strong fortress of Cirta. Here he was closely blockaded by Jugurtha; but before the latter could make himself master of the town, an embassy arrived from Rome to interpose, and com­pel both parties to desist from hostilities. Jugurtha, however, succeeded in putting off the deputies with fair words; and as soon as they had quitted Africa, pressed the siege more vigorously than before. A second deputation from Rome arrived soon after, at the head of which was M. Aemilius Scaurus, a man of the highest dignity; but though Jugurtha obeyed their summons, and presented himself before them, accompanied only by a few horsemen, he did not raise the siege of Cirta; and the ambassadors, after many fruitless threats, were obliged to quit Africa without accomplishing the object of their mission. Hereupon the garrison of Cirta surren­dered, on a promise of their lives being spared: but these conditions were shamefully violated by Jugurtha, who immediately put to death Adherbal and all his followers, b. c. 112.

Indignation was now loud at Rome against the Numidian king: yet so powerful was the influence of those whose favour he had gained by his lar­gesses, that he would probably have prevailed upon the senate to overlook all his misdeeds, had not one of the tribunes, C. Memmius, by bringing the matter before the people, compelled the senators to assume a more lofty tone. War was accordingly declared against him, and one of the consuls, L. Calpurnius Bestia, landed in Africa with a large army, and immediately proceeded to invade Nu­midia. But Jugurtha, having failed in averting the war by his customary arts, next tried their effect upon the general sent against him. The avarice of Bestia rendered him easily accessible to these designs ; and by means of large sums of money given to him and M. Scaurus, who acted as his principal lieutenant, Jugurtha purchased from them a favourable peace, on condition only of a

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