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On this page: Ixionides – Ixius – Iynx – Izates – Labda – Labdacus – Labeo

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LABEO.

, IXI'ON, a surname of Demetrius, the gram­marian, of Adramyttium. [Vol. I. p. 968, a.]

IXIONIDES, a patronymic, applied by Ovid (Met. viii. 566) to Peirithous, the son of Ixion; but the plural, Ixionidae, occurs also as a name of the Centaurs. (Lucan, vi. 386.) [L. S.]

IXIUS (1|tos), a surname of Apollo, derived from a district of the island of Rhodes which was called Ixiae or Ixia. (Steph. Byz. s. v. *I|iai; comp. Strab. xiv. p. 655.) [L. S.J

IYNX(vIi>7£), a daughter of Peitho and Pan, or of Echo, She endeavoured to charm Zeus, or make him, by magic means, fall in love with lo ; in consequence of which Hera metamorphosed her into the bird called lynx (iynx torquilla). (Schol. ad T/teocrit. ii. 17, ad Find. Pyth.Yf. 380, Nem. iv. 56 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 310.) According to another story, she was a daughter of Pierus, and as she and her sis'ters had presumed to enter into a musical contest with the Muses, she was changed into the bird lynx. (Anton. lib. 9.) This bird, the symbol of passionate and restless love, was given by Aphrodite to Jason, who, by turning it round and pronouncing certain magic words, excited the love of Medeia, (Pind. Pytli. iv. 380, &c.; Tzetz. L c.} [L. S.J

IZATES. [arsaces XIX. p. 358, a.]

L.

LABDA (A«§8a), a daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion, and mother of Cypselus, by Eetion. (Herod, v. 92.) According to the Etymologicum Magnum (p. 199), her name was derived from the fact of her feet being turned outward, and thus re­sembling the letter A. [Comp. cypselus.] [L. S.]

LABDA€IDAE (Aa§5a/a5cu), a patronymic from Labdacus, and frequently used not only to designate his children, but his descendants in general, and is therefore applied not only to Oedi­ pus, his son, but to Polyneices, Eteocles, and Antigone. The family of the Labdacidae is par­ ticularly famous in ancient story, on account of the misfortunes of all that belonged to it. (Soph. Antig. 560; Stat. Theb. vi. 451, and many other passages.) [L. S.]

LABDACUS (AdedaKos), a son of the Theban king, Polydorus, the son of Cadmus, by Nycteis, who was descended from a Spartan family. Lab­ dacus lost his father at an early age, and was placed under the guardianship of Nycteus, and afterwards under that of Lyciis, a brother of Nycteus. When Labdacus had grown up to manhood, Lycus sur­ rendered the government to him ; and on the death of Labdacus, which occurred soon after, Lycus again undertook the guardianship of his son Laius, the father of Oedipus. (Paus. ix. 5. $2; Eurip. Here. Fur. 27 ; Apollod. iii. 5. § 5; comp. nyc­ teus.) [L. S.j • LA'BEO, Q. ANTI'STIUS, a Roman jurist, one of those disciples of Servius Sulpicius, who are stated by Pomponius (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 44) to have written books which were digested by Aufidius Namusa. He was the father of the more eminent jurist of the same name, who lived under Augustus. In his attachment to the.ancient republican liberty, he joined the conspiracy of Brutus and was one of the murderers of Julius Caesar. Constant to the party he had espoused, he was present at the battle of Pharsalia, and, after the defeat, was unwilling to

LABEO.

survive Brutus, who, he was told, had pronounced his name with a sigh before his death. Having dug in his tent a hole of the length of his body, he settled his worldly affairs, and sent messages to his wife and children. Then, taking the hand of his most faithful slave, he turned him round (as was usual in the ceremony of manumission), and, giving him his sword, presented his throat to be stabbed, and was buried in his tent in the hole which he had dug. (Schol. ad Horat. Sat. i. 3. 83 ; Plut. Brut. 12 ; Appian,#. C. iv. 135.) [J. T. G.]

LABEO, M. (?) ANTI'STIUS, the son of the subject of the preceding article, adopted the repub­lican opinions of his father, and finally eclipsed him in reputation as a jurist. His praenomen is un­certain. The Scholiast on Horace (Sat. i. 3. 83) calls him Marcus, and Gellius (xx. 1) calls him Quintus. In his youth he was prompted by his active intellect to cultivate philosophy, and to apply himself to various branches of learning. He be­came a proficient in logic, philosophy, and archaeo­logy, and turned these acquirements to profit in the cultivation of law. In tracing the origin and signification of Latin words he was peculiarly skilful, and by this kind of knowledge he was able to unravel many legal knots. He received the elements of his legal education from Trebatius, but he also listened to the instruction of Tubero and Ofilius. Pomponius states that he was a legal innovator (plurima innovare instituit^ Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 47), whereas, the letter of Capito, cited by Gellius, makes him out to be a strict adherent to ancient usages (ratum tamen nil haberet, nisi quod justum sanctumque esse in Romanis antiquitatibus legisset, Gell. xiii. 12). Under the article capito [Vol. I. p. 600], we have mentioned the manner in which it has been attempted to reconcile these testimonies. Though in private law Labeo was an innovator, he held fast to the ancient forms of the constitution. The anecdote of his refusing to obey the summons of a tribune, while he admitted the right of a tribune to arrest (Gell. I. c.), is an in­stance of his pertinacity in matters of public right. On the other hand, his resort in his own case to codicilii (a word used in very different senses in Roman and in English law) instead of a formal testament, proves that he was not averse to every kind of legal novelty. (Inst. tit. 25, pr.) It is also a proof of the great authority he possessed, that codicilii were universally recognised as admis­sible, after the precedent which Labeo had afforded in his own case. If Labeo, our jurist, be referred to in Dig. 34. tit. 2. s. 32. §.6, we are in possession of a clause of his will, containing a bequest to his wife Neratia.

The rugged republicanism of Labeo (libertas quaedam nimia atque vecors) was not pleasing to Augustus, and it has been supposed by many that the Labeone insanior of Horace (Sat. i. 3. 80) was a stroke levelled against the jurist, in order to please the emperor ; though Wieland has suggested that, at the time when Horace wrote his first book of Satires, Labeo the jurist was probably too and undistinguished to provoke such sarcasm.

In the year b. c. 18 Labeo was one of .those who were appointed by Augustus to nominate senators, and, in- the exercise of his: power, he nominated M. Lepidus, who was disliked by the emperor. On being threatened with punishment by Augustus, for selecting an unfit person, he answered, " Each of us 'has a right to exercise his own discretion, and what

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