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LEONTIUS.

306), together with his uncle, Menelaus, but was immediately restored to his father without ransom. (Athen. xiii. p. 576 ; Justin. xv. 2.) [E. H. B.]

LEONTISCUS, a painter of the Sicyonian school, contemporary with Aratus, whose portrait he painted, with a trophy (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 35). It seems almost idle to inquire which of the victories of Aratus this picture was intended to celebrate. Harduin quotes Plutarch (Arat. 38, fol.), as making it probable that the victory referred to was that over Aristippus, the tyrant of Argos. This would place the painter's date about b. c. 235. [P.S.]

LEONTIONj a Greek painter, contemporary with Aristides of Thebes (about b. c. 340), who painted his portrait. Nothing further is known of him (Plin. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 19). [P. S.]

LEONTIUM (Aeovrtov), an Athenian hetaera, the disciple and mistress of Epicurus. She wrote a treatise against Theophrastus, which Cicero cha­ racterises as written scito quidem sermone et Attico. According to Pliny (Praef.} the audacity of the attempt gave rise to the proverb suspendio arborem eligere* Pliny mentions a painting of her by Theo- dorus, in which she was represented in a meditative attitude. Among her numerous lovers we also find mentioned Metrodorus, the disciple of Epi­ curus, and Hermesianax of Colophon. She had a daughter, Danae, who was also an hetaera of some notoriety. (Diog. Laert. x. 4 ; Athen. xiii. p. 588, a. b. 593, b. 597, a ; Cie, de Nat. Deor. i. 33 ; Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11.) [C. P. M.]

LEONTIUS I., a Syrian, and an officer of re­putation, joined Illus in rebelling against Zeno, the emperor of Constantinople. Leontius was pro­claimed emperor in A. d. 482, and was taken pri­soner and put to death at Constantinople in a. d. 488. The history of this rebellion is given under illus and zeno.

LEONTIUS II. (AeoVnos), emperor of Con­stantinople (a. d. 695—698), deposed and suc­ceeded the emperor Justinian II. towards the end of a. d. 695. He appears first in history as com­mander of the imperial troops against the Maronites, in which capacity he gave cause for suspicion, and accordingly after his return to Constanti­nople, he was put into prison. His popularity, however, was so great, that the emperor did not dare to give him a fair trial, but kept him in con­finement during three years, when, at last, he re­leased him on condition of his leaving the capital, and taking the supreme civil and military com­mand in Greece. Leontius was on the point of sailing from the Golden Horn, when the people, exasperated by the tyranny of Justinian, rose in rebellion, in consequence of which Justinian was deposed, and Leontius raised to the imperial dignity. The particulars of this revolution are given in the life of Justinian II. In the first year of the reign of Leontius the empire enjoyed universal peace, as Theophanus says, except, however, at Ravenna, where a frivolous riot caused much destruction and bloodshed. In the second year of his reign (697) an event occurred which is of the greatest import­ance in the history of Italy, as well as of all Europe and the East. Until that year Venice had be­longed to the Byzantine empire, forming part of the government of Istria; but its advantageous position, and the independent and enterprising spirit of its inhabitants, had raised it to such im­portance and wealth, that its ruin was certain, if it

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LEONTIUS.

remalned any longer exposed to the consequences of the numerous court-revolutions at Constantinople. The Venetians, accordingly, resolved upon forming an independent government, and in 697 chose Paulus Lucas Anafestus, commonly called Paoluc- cio, their first sovereign duke or doge. It seems, however, that this change took place with the con­ nivance of the Byzantine government, for during many years afterwards friendly relations were kept up between Venice and Constantinople. In the same year, 697, the Arabs set out for their fifth invasion of Africa ; and, after having defeated the Greeks in many engagements, their commander, Hasan, took Carthage. He lost it again, but re­ took it in the following year, .698. In order to expel the Arabs from the capital of Africa, Leon­ tius sent reinforcements to the Patrician Joannes, the commander-in-chief in Africa, who succeeded in forcing the entrance of the harbour, but was beaten back again, and compelled to a shameful flight. Carthage now was destroyed by the Arabs, and has since disappeared from among the cities of the world. Joannes sailed for Constantinople in order to obtain a re-inforcement, and try another chance. His land and sea forces were both equally mortified at the disgraceful result of the expedi­ tion ; and Absimarus, one of their leaders, per­ suaded them that they would suffer for a defeat of which the commander-in-chief was the only cause. His words took effect; a mutiny broke out when the fleet was off Crete; Joannes was put to death by the exasperated soldiers ; and Absimarus was proclaimed emperor. The surprise of Leontius was extreme when he saw his fleet return to the har­ bour of Constantinople, and, instead of saluting him, raise the standard of rebellion. Absimarus having bribed the guards on the water side, entered the city without resistance, and seized upon the person of Leontius, who was treated by the usurper as he had treated his predecessor Justinian Rhino- tm$tus, for the captive emperor had his nose and ears cut off, and was confined in a convent, where he finished his days. The deposition of Leontius and the accession of Absimarus, who adopted the name of Tiberius, took place in 698. .[tiberius.] (Theoph. p. 309, &c.; Cedren. p. 443, &c.;. Ni- ceph. p. 26 ; Const. Manasses, p. 80 ; Zonar. vol. ii. p. 94, 95 ; Glycas, p. 279 ; Paul. Diacon. vi. 10 —14.) [W. P.]

LEONTIUS (AeoVnos), literary. 1. Of an-tioch. Leontius was born in Phrygia, and was a disciple of the martyr Lucianus; and having en­tered the church was ordained presbyter. In order to enjoy without scandal the society of a young female, Eustolius or Eustolia, to whom he was much attached, he mutilated himself; but, not­withstanding, did not escape suspicion, and was deposed from his office. On the deposition, how­ever, of Stephanus or Stephen, bishop of Antioch, he was by the favour of the Emperor Constantius and the predominant Arian party appointed to that see, about 348 or 349. He was one of the in­structors of the heresiarch Aetius [AETius], to whom, according to Philostorgius, he expounded the writings of the prophets, especially Ezekiel ; but, after appointing him deacon, he was compelled by the opposite party under Diodorus [diodorus, No. 3] and Flavian [flavianus, No. 1] to silence and depose him. Leontius died about a. d. 358.

Of his writings, which were numerous, nothing remains except a fragment of what Cave describest

3 c 2

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