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hasty performance, containing some gross'errors. The best English version is that of Dr. Franklin, 2 vols..4to. London, 1780, and 4 vols. 8vo. London, 1781 ; but some of the pieces are omitted. Mr. Tooke's version (2 vols. 4to. London, 1820) is of little value. [T. D.]
LUCIENUS, a Roman senator, a friend of M. Varro, and one of the speakers in his dialogue De Re Rustica (ii. 5). He is supposed to be the same person with Lucienus or Luscienus mentioned by Cicero (ad Att. vii. 5). [W. B. D.]
LUCIFER, bishop of Cagliari, hence surnamed Calaritanus, first appears in ecclesiastical history as joint legate with Eusebius of Vercelli [eusebius vercellensis] from pope Liberius to the council of Milan (a. d. 354), where, along with his colleague, he displayed such determined firmness in withstanding the demands of the Arian emperor, that he was first cast into prison, and then transported from place to place as an exile, every where enduring hardships and cruelty. While residing at Eleutheropolis in Syria he composed in vigorous but coarse and unpolished style his chief work, entitled Ad Constantium Augustumpro Sancto Aiha-nasio Libri //., which, although containing forcible arguments in fcevour of the truth, is characterised by such outrageous intemperance .of expression, that many passages bear more resemblance to the ravings of a furious madman than to the calm reasoning which would become a Christian minister. Con-stantius, either in anger or contempt, inquired of Lucifer, through Florentiiis, the magister officiorum, whether he was really the author of this invective, but no immediate punishment appears to have followed the bold acknowledgment, and any scheme of vengeance which might have been meditated was frustrated by the death of the tyrant. The violent and ungovernable temper of the Sardinian prelate, who was now restored to freedom, along with other victims of religious persecution, soon began to introduce confusion and discord among his own friends. He increased the disorders which agitated the church at Antioch by interfering in their disputes, and ordaining Paulinus bishop, in opposition to Meletius ; and when his proceedings were censured by Eusebius, who had been despatched to Antioch by the Alexandrian synod to quell these tumults, he did not hesitate to anathematise his old tried friend, so long the companion of his dangers and misfortunes. Finding that his extreme opinions received no. sanction from the ecclesiastical authorities either in the East or West, and that he was disclaimed even by Athanasius, who at one time had spoken of his writings in terms of the warmest admiration, he retired to his native island, and there founded the small sect of the Luciferiani.. The distinguishing tenet of these schismatics was, that no Arian bishop, and no bishop who had in any measure yielded to the Arians, even although he repented and confessed his errors, could enter the bosom of the church without forfeiting his ecclesiastical rank, and that all bishops and others who admitted the claims of such persons to a full restoration of their privileges became themselves tainted and outcasts—a doctrine which, had it been acknowledged at this period in its full extent, would have had the effect of excommunicating nearly the whole Christian world. Lucifer died during the reign of Valentinian^ probably about A. d. 370.
The works of this fierce polemic, which, although all alike deformed by the same unseemly harshness and passion, are extremely valuable, on account of the numerous quotations from Scripture every where introduced, may be arranged in the following order:
1. Epistola ad Eusebium, written in the month of March or April, 355. II. De non conveniendo cum Haereticis9 written between 356 and 358, at Germanica, while suffering under the persecution of Eudoxius, the Arian bishop of that place. III. De Regibus Apostolicis, written at Eleutheropolis in 358. IV. Ad Constantium Augustum pro Sancto Atkanasio, Libri //., written at the same place, about 360. V. De non parcendo in Deum delin-quentibuS) written about the same time with the preceding. VI. Moriendumpro Filio Dei, written about the beginning of 361, on being interrogated respecting the authorship of the tract Ad Constantium. VII. Epistola ad Florentium Magistrum Officiorum^ written at the same time with the preceding. An Epistola ad Caitiolicos, written while imprisoned at Milan, is lost.
The Editio Princeps of the works of Lucifer appeared at Paris, 8vo. 1568, superintended by Joannes Tillius, bishop of Meaux (Meldensis)9 and dedicated to pope Pius the Fifth. Although in many respects very imperfect, it was reprinted without alteration in the Magna B'ibliotheca Patrum^ fol. Colon. 1618, vol. iv. p. 121, and also in the Paris collection. But even these are superior to the text exhibited in the BibliotJi. Patrum Max* fol. Lugdun. 1687, vol. iv. p. 181, since here we find not only many changes introduced without MS. authority, but all the scriptural quotations accommodated to the vulgate version. Much better than any of the preceding is the edition contained in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. vi. p. 115 (fol. Venet. 1770), but by far the best is that pub lished by the brothers Coleti (fol. Venet. 1778), whose labours presented this father for the first time in a satisfactory form. (Hieronym. de Viris III. 95, Advers. Luciferian. Dial.; Rufin. H.<E. i. 30 ; Sulp. Sever. H. S. ii. 48 ; Socrat. H. E. iii. 5 ; Sozomen. H. E. v. 12 ; Theodoret. H. E. iii. 4 ; Schonemann, Bibliotli. Pair. Lot. i. § 8, where very full information concerning the different editions will be found.) [W. R.]
LUCILIA GENS, plebeian, produced only one person of any celebrity, the poet Lucilius ; but none of its members obtained any of the higher offices of the state. Under the republic we find the cognomens balbus and bassus, and under the empire capito and longus. 0n coins we find the cognomen Rufus, which does not, however, occur in any ancient writer (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 239). A few persons of the name of Lucilius are mentioned without any cognomen.
LUCILIUS. 1. sext. lucilius, tribune of the plebs, b. c. 86, a partizan of Sulla, was in the following year thrown down the Tarpeian rock by his successor P. Laenas, who belonged to the-Marian party. (Veil. Pat. ii. 24.)