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LUCIUS.

distinguished "between the God of the Jews (whom he designated as malignant, and whose minister Simon Magus was) and Christ (whom he called " the Good One"). He denied the reality of Christ's human nature, and affirmed .that he was not crucified, but that another suffered in his place. He condemned marriage as altogether unlawful. Both Augustin and the author of the book De Fide (II. cc.) cite a passage from this work, which they call ActusApostolorum; and it is evident from what they say that it was much esteemed among the Manichaeans, though rejected by the great body of Christians. But it is not so clear whether the author lived before or after the time of Manes, who flourished in the latter half of the third cen­tury. Whether he wrote any other works is not clear. Pope Innocent I., or the writer, whether Innocentius or not, of the Epistola ill. ad Eocuperantium, ascribes to " one Leucius" some apocryphal writings extant in his time (Innocent died a. d. 417)» under the names of Matthew, of James the Less, and of Peter and John : and in the prefatory letters to the apocryphal Evangelium de Nativitate Mariae (Fabric. Codex Apocrypli. N. T. vol. i. p. 19), which pretend to be addressed to or written by Jerome, by whom the Evangelium itself (which was ascribed to the evangelist Matthew) was professedly translated from the Hebrew into Latin, it is stated that a work on the same subject, or rather the same work much inter­polated, had been published by Seleucus, a Mani-chaean. We are not aware that the date of these pseudo-Hieronymian letters is known, but they in­dicate that such a work by Seleucus was then in existence ; and this Seleucus is by many critics identified with our Leucius. Huet supposes that the apocryphal writings ascribed to Leucius by pope Innocent included the Protevangelium Jacobi given by Fabricius (/.. c. p. 66) ; but if there be any foundation for this opinion, Leucius must have lived a century before Manes, as indeed Grabe sup­poses that he did. Fabricius, however, decidedly re­jects the opinion of Huet. Grabe (Not. ad Irenaeum, lib. i. c. 17) cites from a MS. at Oxford, containing Leucii Evangelium, a passage which resembles part of the Evangelium Infantiae (c. 49), but does not exactly agree with it. A portion of the Montanists, who existed as late as the end of the fourth century, boasted, though falsely, of a Leucius, as having been an influential person among them (Pacian. Epistol. I. c. 6 ; apud Aguirre, Concil. Hispan. vol. i. p. 317, fol. Rom. 1753). This Leucius was perhaps the same as the Leucius Charinus of Photius; though Fabricius rather identifies him with another Leucius, mentioned by Epiphanius (Haeres. Ii. 6, p. 427, ed. Petav.) as a disciple of the Apostle John. (Augustin. Phot. II. cc.; Fabric. Cod. ApocrypTi. N. T. pars ii. p. 768, pars iii. p. 624, alibi, 8vo. Hamb. 1719; Tillemont, Memoires, vol. ii. p. 445, 446 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. ad Ann. 180, et ad fin. Saec. vi.)'

5. Of etruria. Plutarch, in his Symposiac. s. Quaest. Convivial, (viii. 7,8) introduces as one of the speakers Lucius, an Etruscan, and a disciple of Moderatus the Pythagorean, who flourished in the reign of the emperor Nero. Lucius asserted that Pythagoras himself was an Etruscan. . 6. haereticus. [See Nos. 2, 4.]

7. manichaeus. [See No. 4,]

8. papa, succeeded Cornelius as bishop of Rome according to Baronius in a. d-. 255, but according

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LUCIUS.

to Pagi and Pearson in a. d. 252. According to Baronius he was born at Rome, and his father was named Porphyrius. Of his history previous to his pontificate little1 more is known than that he was one of the presbyters who accompanied his pre­decessor into exile, when he was banished by the emperor Gallus to Centum Cellae, now Civita Vecchia. [cornelius.] Lucius himself was bar nished a short time after his election, but soon obtained leave to return. His return was about the end of the year 252, or early in the year 253-(256 according to Baronius), and he could not have long survived it, as his whole pontificate was only of six or eight months, perhaps even shorter than that. He died, not as Baronius states, in a. d., 257, but in a. d. 253, being, according to some accounts, martyred by decapitation. The manner of his death is, however, very doubtful. (Euseb. H. E. vii. 2; Cyprian. Epistol. 61, 68, ed. Fell. 58, 67, ed. Pamelii; Pearson, AnnaL Cyprian, ad ann.252, 253; Baronius, Annal. ad ann. 255,256, 257, 258; Pagi, Critice in Baronium; Tillemont,, Memoires, vol. iv. p. 118, &c.)

9. Of patrae, a Greek writer of uncertain date. He wrote M€Tajuop<pey(reeyj' Koyoi 8id<popQtr MetamorpJioseon Libri Diversi. which are nowlosV but were extant in the time of Photius, who has described them (Bibl, cod. 129). His style was perspicuous and pure, but his works were crowded, with marvels; and, according to Photius, he re­lated with perfect gravity and good faith the trans­formations of men into brutes and brutes into men, and " the other nonsense and idle tales of the ancient mythology." Some parts of his works bore so close a resemblance to the Lucius s. A sinus of" Lucian, that Photius thought he had either bor-^ rowed from that writer, or, as was more likely, Lucian had borrowed from him. The latter alter­native appears to be the true one; for if Photius is correct as to Lucius believing the stories he related, we can hardly suppose he would have derived any part of his narratives from such an evident scoffer as Lucian and Lucian possibly designed, by giving the name Lucius to his hero, and making him an inhabitant of Patrae, to ridicule the credulity of his predecessor.

10. The pythagorean. [See No. 5.]

11. Of rome. [See No. 8.] [J.C.M.] LU'CIUS, artists. LA lamp-maker, whose

name is inscribed on a lamp in Bartoli's collection.

(Lucerne, vol. iii. pi. 9; Welcker, in the Kunstblatt^

1827, No. 84 ; R. Rochette, Lettre £ M.Sckorn,

p. 342, 2nd edition.)

2. An artist in pottery, the maker of a vessel in the Leyden Museum. (Janssen, Mus. Lugd. Inscript. p. 141.)

3. A gem-engraver, the maker of a beautiful head of Victory. (Bracci, vol. ii. p. 132.) [P. S.]

LUCIUS, a physician of Tarsus in Cilicia (Galen. De Compos. Medicam. sec. log. ix. 5. voL xiii. p. 295), who must have lived in or before the first century after Christ, as he. is mentioned by Archigenes. (ap. Galen, ibid. iii. 1, vol. xii. p. 623.) He was perhaps tutor to Criton (Galen, ibid. v. 3. vol. xii. p. 828) and Asclepiades Pharmacion, (ibid. vol. xiii. pp. 648, 746, 846, 850, 852, 857,. 969), unless (as is not unlikely) the term 6 tcaOri^ ynr^s be used merely as a sort of honorary title.. Fabricius says (Bibl. Graec. vol. xiii. p. 310, ed. vet.) that he was tutor to Galen, but it is probable that in the passage referred to (vol. xiii. pp. 524^

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