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5. The Magnus who wrote on Antidotes, and attained the dignity of Archiater, must be a different person from any of the preceding, as he was a contemporary of Galen, about the middle of the second century after Christ. (Galen, De Ther. ad Pis. cc. 12, 13, vol. xiv. pp. 261, 262.) He is quoted also by Serapion (Pract. vii. 8), who calls him " Rex Medicorum in tempore Galieni."
6. The Magnus who lived after Themison, about the same time as Archigenes, or a little earlier, and who belonged to the medical sect of the Pneumatici (Galen, De Differ. Puls. iii. 2, vol. viii. p. 646), was also probably a different person from any of the preceding, and lived in the latter half of the second century after Christ. He wrote a work, Hepl tgov 'E0eyp?7/Li€J'ft>j> juerd toi)s ®(/*i-ffwvos Xpoi/ous, De Inventis post Tliemisonis Tem-pora, consisting of at least three books (Gal. ibid. p. 641), from which several passages are quoted by Galen relating to the pulse (ibid. pp. 640,641,756). On this subject Magnus differed in several points from Archigenes, by whom some of his opinions were controverted. (Gal. De Cans. Puls. i. 4, vol. ix. pp. 8,18, 21, Id. De Differ. Puls* vol. viii. pp. 638, 640, &c.)
7. Abu-1-Faraj mentions a physician of this name, who lived in the seventh century after Christ ; but the Arabic writers are so incorrect in Greek history and Chronology, that it is not at all unlikely that he is speaking of one of the persons ctlready named. (Hist. Dynast, p. 115.)
There is extant in the Greek Anthology an epigram of a physician of this name, Els rrjv Et/cora tol\tivov (Anthol. Planud. § 270) ; and also one by Palladas, Ets Myvov 'laTpoffofyia-Tyv (xi. 281, ed. Tauchn). [ W. A. G.] MAGNUS ARBO'RIUS. [arborius.] MAGNUS AUSO'NIUS. [AusoNius.J MAGNUS FELIX. [felix, p. 144, a.] . MAGNUS, FONTEIUS. [fonteius, p. 180, b.]
MAGO (Mcfycoi'), a name of common occurrence at Carthage. Hence the same difficulty is found as with most other Carthaginian names in discriminating or identifying the different persons incidentally mentioned who bear this name.
1. A Carthaginian who, according to Justin, was the founder of the military power of that city, being the first to introduce a regular discipline and organisation into her armies. He is said to have himself obtained by this means great successes ; and still farther advantages were reaped by his two sons Hasdrubal and Hamilcar, who followed in their father's footsteps. (Justin, xviii. 7, xix. 1.) If the second of his two sons be correctly identified with the Hamilcar that was killed at Himera [hamilcar, No. 1], we may conclude that Mago himself must have flourished from 550 to 500 years before Christ. (See Heeren, Ideen, vol. iv.
2. Commander of the Carthaginian fleet under Himilco in the war against Dionysius, b. c. 396. He is particularly mentioned as holding that post in the great sea-fight off Catana, when he totally defeated the fleet of the Syracusans under Lep-tines, the brother of Dionysius, sinking or destroying above 100 of their ships, besides capturing many others. (Diod. xiv. 59, 60.) We have no information as to the part he bore in the subsequent operations against Syracuse itself; but after the disastrous termination of the expedition, and the
return of Himilco to Africa, Mago appears to liave been invested with the chief command in Sicily, where he endeavoured by measures of lenity and conciliation towards the Greek cities, and by concluding alliances with the Sicilian tribes, to reestablish the Carthaginian power in the island. In 393 he advanced against Messana, but was attacked and defeated by Dionysius near Aba-caenum, which compelled him to remain quiet for a time. The next year, however, having received powerful reinforcements from Sardinia and Africa, he assembled an army of 80,000 men, with which he advanced through the heart of Sicily as far as the river Chrysas, but was there met by Dionysius, who having secured the alliance of Agyris, tyrant of Agyrium, succeeded in cutting off the supplies of the enemy, and by this means reduced them to such distress, that Mago was compelled to conclude a treaty of peace, by which he abandoned his allies the Sicilians to the power of Dionysius. (Id. xiv. 90, 95, 96.) After this Mago returned to Carthage, where he was not long after raised to the office of .king or suffete, a dignity which he held in b. c. 383, when the ambition and intrigues of Dionysius led to the renewal of hostilities between Carthage and Syracuse. Mago landed in Sicily with a large army, and after numerous petty combats, a pitched battle at length took place, in which, after a severe contest, the Carthaginians were defeated, and Mago himself slain. (Diod. xv. 15.)
3. Commander of the Carthaginian fleet and army in Sicily in b. c. 344. When Timoleon had made himself master of the citadel of Syracuse^ after the departure of Dionysius, Hicetas, finding himself unable to cope single-handed with this new and formidable rival, called in the assistance of Mago, who appeared before Syracuse with a fleet of 150 triremes, and an army of 50,000 men. Ha did not, however, accomplish anything worthy of so great a force ; not only were both he and Hicetas unable to make any impression on the island citadel, but while they were engaged in an expedition against Catana, Neon, the Corinthian governor of Syracuse, took advantage of their absence to make himself master of Achradina. Jealousies likewise arose between the Carthaginians and their Syracusan allies, and at length Mago, becoming apprehensive of treachery, suddenly relinquished the enterprise, and on the approach of Timoleon at the head of a very inferior force, sailed away with his whole fleet, and withdrew to Carthage. Here his cowardly conduct excited such indignation, that he put an end to his own life, to avoid a worse fate at the hands of his exasperated countrymen, who, nevertheless, proceeded to crucify his lifeless body. (Plut. Timol. 17—22 ; the same events are more briefly related by Diodorus, xvi. 69, but without any mention of the name of Mago.)
4. Commander of a Carthaginian fleet, which, according to Justin, was despatched to the assistance of the Romans during the war with Pyrrhus, apparently soon after the battle of Asculum (b. c. 279). The Roman senate having declined the proffered aid, Mago sailed away to the south of Italy, where he had an interview with Pyrrhus himself, in which he endeavoured to sound that monarch in regard to his views on Sicily. (Justin, xviii. 2.) It was probably part of the same fleet which we find mentioned as besieging Rhegium and guarding the straits of Messana, to prevent