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his father-in-law, who, according to the beautiful lay preserved by Livy, roused the Latin people against the infant republic, and perished in the great battle at the lake Regillus, by the hands of T. Herminius, whom he also slew. (Liv. i. 49, ii. 15, 19, 20 ; Dionys. iv. 45, v. 4— vi. 12 ; Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 2, ad Att. ix. 10.)

2. L. mamilius, dictator or chief magistrate at Tusculum in b. c. 460, marched in that year un- summoned to the assistance of Rome when it was attacked by Herdonius. For his services on this occasion he was rewarded two years afterwards with the Roman franchise. (Liv. iii. 18, 29 ; Dionys. x. 16.) '

3. C. mamilius, plebeian aedile, b.. c. 207. (Liv. xxvii. 36.)

MAMMAS (GREGO'RIUS), or MELISSE'-NUS (GREGO'RIUS), a monk of the latest By-zantine period. We first read of him as negotiator in reconciling the brothers of the emperor Joannes II. Palaeologus. He was one of the Greek ecclesias­tics, who accompanied the emperor, a.d. 1438, to the synod of Ferrara, and then held the office of Ilz/cu/xa-riK6s, " Pneumaticus," rt Pater Spiritualis," or Con­fessor to the Emperor. Reappears to have gone un­willingly; and Sguropulus (not, however, a very trustworthy witness) has recorded a 'saying of his to one of his confidential friends, " If I go there, .1 will work all manner of evil." At first, after his arrival in Italy, he was most vehement in his de­clarations of hostility to the Latin church ; but he was led, apparently by a quarrel with Marcus Eu-genicus, archbishop of Ephesus, and the great champion of the Greek church, and by a present or a pension from the pope (Sgurop. viii. 6) to pass over to the opposite side, and become a warm ad­vocate of the union of the churches. Just before the removal of the synod from Ferrara to Florence, the emperor conferred on him the post of proto-syncellus ; and in A. d. 1446 he was appointed patriarch of Constantinople ; but this was against his will ; and after holding that dignity for about five years, he escaped from Constantinople, where his Latinizing opinions and his support of the union made him odious, and the fall of which he foresaw must soon take place, and fled into Italy. He died at Rome a. d. 1459, and was buried there. His memory is held in great reverence by the Roman Catholics ; and it has even been asserted that miracles were wrought at his tomb. Sguro­pulus generally calls Gregorius by his name and title of office, without his surname. Phranza calls him Gregorius Melissenus (d M^Aio-o^z/os), but states that others called him Strategopulus (2rpa-ri)y6TTov\o!s), a name which, as Phranza elsewhere (ii. 2) states, many members of the illustrious family of the Melisseni had derived from Alexius Strategopulus, who had recovered Constantinople out of the hands of the Latins. The name Mam­mas (6 MdfjLfir}) is given him by the author of the Historia Politica in the Turco-Graecia of Crusius. (Sguropulus, Hist. Concil. Florent. iii. 20, v. 15, vi. 23, 24, vii. 14, viii. 6, &c. ; Phranza, An-nales, ii. 12, 15, 19, iii. 1 ; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, vol. i. col. 309.)

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The works of Gregorius are as follows : 1. 'Anro-hoyia Tpriyopiov lepouovdxov rov fj.€yd\ov irptaro-o~vyK€\\ov, rov irvev^ariKOV, rov flffrepov ^pr//za-rio~avros irarpidpxov, Kal ev 'Pofy«7 rafycvros koi Savfjuvrovpyovvros, els rrlv rov 'E<j>€(rov eirurroXfy SiaQdpwv dyiwv, Gregorii Hieromonachi^ Magnl

VOL. II.

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MAMURRA.

Protosyncelli et a Confessionibus, qui postmodum weatus est Patriarcha* et Romae sepultus corns-oavit MiraculiS) JResponsio ex vanis Sanctorum Sententiis ad Epistolam Mard Ephesii. This answer was translated into Latin by Joannes Mat-thaeus Caryophilus, and subjoined by him to the second volume of the A eta Concilii Florentini: it is reprinted in some editions of the Concilia, e. g. in the last vol. of that of Binius, in vol. xiii. of that of Labbe, and in that of Hardouin, vol. ix. col. 601

—670. This work is twice mentioned by Fabri-cius ; first as AntirrTteticus adversus Marci Epliesii' Epistolam, and then as Apologia s. Responsio ad Epistolam Epliesii, as if he was speaking of two distinct works. 2. rpyyopiov irpo)roo~vyK€\\ov irarpiapxov Koovcrravrivoinro^oos irpos rov j3ao*i-Aea Tpaire^ovvros, Gregorii Protosyncelli, Patri-arcJiae Constantinopolitani, ad Imperatorem Tra-pezuntis. This is given in the Graecia Orthodoxa of Allatius, vol. i. p. 419, 4to. .Rome, 1652, with a Latin version by the editor. These are the only works of Gregory which have been published ; but there are extant in MS.: 3. 'A7roAo7ia els t-^v rov

*E(J>e<7ou 6fj.o\oyia,v, Apologia in Confessionem Marci Ephesii. This is in the libraries of Florence and Munich. 4. IIpa7juaT6ta, Tractatus, sc. de Synodo Florentine, mentioned by Gregory himself in his 'A-7roA07fa (Concil. vol. ix. col. 658, c. ed. Hardouin), and described by Fabricius as Apologia pro quinque Capitibus Florentini Concilii. Many Epistolae of Gregory are, or were, extant in the Vatican library. (Fabric. BiU. Graec. vol. xi. p. 393 ; Cave, Hist. Litt. (Appendix) ad ann. 1440, vol. ii. Appendix, p. 152, ed. Oxford, 1740—42 ; Bandini, Catalog. Codd. MSS. Biblioth. Medic. Laur. vol. i. pp. 483, 484; Aretin s. Hardt, Catalog. Codd. MStorum Biblioth. Reg. Bavar. vol. i. pp. 146, 147.) [J. C. M.]

MAMMULA, the name of a patrician family of the Cornelia gens, but which never became of much importance in the state.

L A. cornelius mammula, was praetor, b. c. 217, at the commencement of the second Punic war, in which year he vowed a ver sacrum (Diet, of Ant. s. v.), but this vow was not fulfilled till b. c. 195 (Liv. xxxiii. 44, compared with xxii. 9, sub fin.). In b. c. 216 Mammula was propraetor in Sardinia, and applied in vain to the senate for corn and pay for his troops. (Liv. xxiii. 21 j Val. Max. vii. 6.'§ 1.)

2. A. cornelius mammula, praetor b. c. 191, in which year the war with Antiochus broke out, received as his province the southern part of Italy (Bruttii). (Liv. xxxv. 24, xxxvi. 2, xxxvii. 2,4.)

3. P. cornelius mammula, praetor b. c. 180, with the province of Sicily. (Liv. xi. 35.)

4. M. cornelius mammula, was sent with, four others as ambassador to Perseus, king of Macedonia, and Ptolemy, king of Egypt, in b. c. 173. (Liv. xlii. 6.)

MAMURIUS VETURIUS. [veturius.] MAMURRA, a Roman knight, born at Formiae, was the commander of the engineers (praefectus fabruni) in Julius Caesar's army in Gaul. He amassed great riches, the greater part of which, however, he owed to Caesar's liberality. He is menti'oned by Pliny as the first person at Rome who covered all the walls of his house with layers of marble, and also as the first, all of the columns in whose house were made of solid marble. In one of the poems of Catullus, addressed to Caesar (Carhi ,

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