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MANILIUS.

stars alone is considered, the power which they exert in combination with the planets being- alto­gether passed over (see ii. 961, iii. 583). Not even the first section is complete ; the risings of several constellations with reference to the signs of the zodiac, which ought to have been included in the fifth book, are omitted, and a sixth would have been necessary to enumerate the settings of those constellations whose risings formed the sub­ject of the fifth.

On the merits of Manilius as a poet we can say little. Occasionally, especially in the introductions and digressions, we discern both power of language and elevation of thought, but for the most part the attempts to embellish the dull details of his art are violent and ungraceful, affording a most remarkable contrast to the majesty with which Lucretius rises on high without an effort. The style is extremely faulty, it is altogether deficient in simplicity and precision, always harsh, frequently obscure, abound­ing in repetitions and in forced and ungainly me­taphors, while the phraseology presents a number of unusual and startling combinations, although these are not of such a character as to justify the charge of barbarism. But while we withhold praise from his taste we must do justice to his learning. He seems to have consulted the best authorities, and to have adopted their most sagacious views. Blunders have, indeed, been detected here and there, in the statements regarding the relative position of the constellations, but some of the opinions which he advocates on sidereal astronomy are anticipations of the brightest discoveries of modern times. Thus, not only is the popular belief that the fixed stars were all arranged on the surface of a concave vault, at equal distances from the centre of the earth, unhesitatingly rejected, but it is affirmed that they are of the same nature with the sun, and that each belongs to a separate system. The appearance exhibited by the milky way is in like manner correctly explained as arising from the blended rays of a multitude of minute stars.

The Editip Princeps of Manilius was printed in 4to. at Nuremberg, probably about 1472 or 1473, by Joannes Regiomontanus, from the MSS. ori­ginally brought to light by Poggio. Laurentius Bonincontrius published an edition at Bologna, fol. 1474, from a MS. preserved in the convent of Monte Casino, and annexed a commentary of little value. Steph. Dulcinius (fol. Mediolan. 1489) and Ant. Molinius (12mo. Lugd. 1551, 1556), profess to have introduced numerous emendations from MSS., but the last of the three editions by Joseph Scaliger (8vo. Paris, 1579, 1590, 4to. Lug. Bat. 1600), published at Leyden in 1600, is infinitely superior to all which preceded it, the text being founded chiefly on the Codex Gemblacensis, the oldest of existing MSS., and the notes by which it is accompanied being full of curious and recondite learning upon matters relating to ancient astronomy and astrology. Much, however, still remained to be done, and Bentley did not consider the task un­worthy of his powers. By comparing the Codex 'Gemblacensis with the Codex Lipsiensis which stands next in point of antiquity and value, with the Codices of Voss, of Pithou, with some others of more recent date, and with the earliest editions, he produced the text (Lond. 4to. 1739) which is now the standard, and which is unquestionably the most pure, although, as we might have anticipated, occasionally disfigured by rash emendations. The

MANLIUS.

more recent editions of Stoeber, 8vo."Argentorat. 1767 ; of Burton, 8vo. Lond. 1783 ; and of Pingre (with a French translation), 8vo. Paris, 1786, are of no particular value.

We have a metrical version of the first book of Manilius, by Edward Sherburne, fol. Lond. 1675, and of the whole poem by Thomas Creech, the translator of Lucretius, 8vo. Lond. 1697. (G. J. Voss, de Poetis Lot. cap. 2 ; comp. De Arte Gframm. ii. 26 ; Scaliger, Prolegomena in Manilium; Fr. Jacob, De M. Manilio Poeta, 4to. Lubec. 1832.) [W.R.]

MANILIUS, the author of an epigram in two lines, quoted by Varro (L. L. p. 130, ed. M'uller). If Manilius the astrologer really flourished in the Augustan age, it may belong to him. (Burmann. Antliol. Lat. iii. 245, No. 33, ed. Meyer.) [W. R.]

MANISARUS, a prince who had seized upon Armenia in the time of Trajan, and against whom Osroes, the Parthian king, accordingly declared war. Upon Trajan's invasion of the East, Mani-sarus sent ambassadors to offer submission to the Roman emperor (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 22). There are some coins extant, which are assigned to this Manisarus. (Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 208.)

MANIUS, the person who managed the affairs of M. Antonius, in Italy, was one of the chief in­stigators of the war in b. c. 42, usually known as the Perusinian war, which was carried on by L. Antonius and Fulvia, the wife of the triumvir, against Octavianus, during the absence of M. Antonius in the East. Manius also took an active part in the conduct of the war, but he was destined to pay dearly for his activity: for upon the reconciliation of Antonius and Octavianus, in b. c. 40, Manius was put to death by the former, as one of the disturbers of the peace, but partly, it appears, on account of his having exasperated Fulvia against Antonius. (Appian, B. C. v. 14, 19, 22, 29, 32, 66 ; comp. Mart. xi. 20.)

MANLIA GENS, one of the most ancient and celebrated of the patrician gentes at Rome. Sub­sequently we find some plebeians of this name. This name is frequently confounded with those of Maliius and Manilius. [mallia gens and ma-nilia gens.] The first member of this gens who obtained the consulship was Cn. Manlius Cincin-natus, who was consul in b. c. 480 ; and from that time down to the.last century of the republic, some of its members constantly filled the higher offices of the state. The family-names of the Manlii under the republic were:—acidinus, capitolinus, cincinnatus (accidentally omitted under Cin-cinnatus, but given below), torquatus, vulso.

On coins the only cognomens are Torquatus and Ser.; the latter of which is variously interpreted to signify Serranus, Serratus^ .or Sergia: the last name would indicate the Sergian tribe. A few plebeian Manlii are mentioned without any cog­nomen ; they are given below.

MANLIUS. 1. cn. manlius cincinnatus, was consul in b. c. 480, with M. Fabius Vibulanus, and fell in battle against the Etruscans. (Liv. ii. 43, 47 ; Dionys. ix. 5, 6, 11, 12 ; Oros. ii. 5.)

2. A. manlius, a legate of C. Marius, in the war against Jugurtha in Africa, b. c. 107. He was sent along with Sulla to Bocchus, to negotiate the surrender of Jugurtha. (Sail. Jug. 86, 90,102.)

3. C. .manlius, the commander of Catiline's troops in Etruria, in b. c. 63, is more correctly, named C. Maliius. [mallius.]

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