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Interior. Its southern frontier was not more than 200 miles from Italy itself, and the half-subdued provinces of Pannonia and Noricum might either become useful allies, or at least divert the attention of the Caesars from the peaceful growth or the hostile preparations of the Marcomannic state. Its capital was Boviasmum, and Maroboduus main­tained his regal dignity by a regular force of 70,000 foot and 4000 horse, armed and disciplined after the &oman manner, and while he provided for independence or aggression he carefully culti­vated the arts of peace. The Romans believed, or affected to believe, that Maroboduus chose this remote seat of empire from dread of their arms. But policy rather than fear probably directed his choice, for if Rome was to be assailed, leisure and security for many years were needful to prepare the Germans for the assault. In a. d. 7, however, his designs, or the strength of the Marcomannic kingdom aroused the jealousy of Augustus. The existence of a free and powerful state was a dan­gerous spectacle for the subjects of Rome ; the disunion of the Teutonic tribes was the security of the empire ; and even if Maroboduus was not per­sonally hostile, lie was forming a centre of union and a model of polity for the Germanic race. Maroboduus had also touched the pride as well as the fears of Rome, He gave refuge to its dis­contented subjects; his ambassadors did not always address Augustus as a superior, and if their lan­guage was respectful, their demands were fre­quently arrogant. The operations against Maro­boduus were on a wider scale than had hitherto been adopted against the German tribes. Tiberius was directed to cross the Danube at Carnuntum, near the modern Presburg, the eastern extremity of the Marcomannic kingdom ; Sentius Saturninus was to lead his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercy-nian forest, to join Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both were to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. A general revolt of the Cis-Danubian provinces rescued Maroboduus, and Tiberius had the address or the good fortune to persuade him to remain neutral during the Pan-nonian and Dalmatic war. Maroboduus did not avail himself of the distress of Rome after the dis­aster of Quintilius Varus, a. d. 9, and marked his friendship for Augustus on that occasion by re­deeming from his murderers the head of the un­fortunate general and sending it for sepulture to Rome. Eight years later (a. d. 17) the disunion which so long paralysed the Teutonic races in their struggle with Rome effected the ruin of the Mar­comannic kingdom. The policy of Maroboduus, ill-understood by his countrymen, appeared to them, or may have really degenerated into des­potism. The Cheruscans under Arminius [armi-nius] prepared to attack; the Semnones and Longo-bards, Suevian clans, revolted from him. The jealousy between Arminius and his uncle Inguio-merus [Inguiomerus], who embraced the Marco­mannic alliance, delayed but could not avert the storm, and Maroboduus, defeated in action, sought the aid of Rome. In A. d. 19 he had again become formidable, and Drusus prepared to invade him, when Catualda [catualda], a chief of the Gothones, whom Maroboduus had driven into exile, led a detachment through the Bohemian passes into the heart of Maroboduus's kingdom.



As his last resource the Marcomannic king became a suppliant,.although a lofty and royal one in his tone, to Tiberius. The emperor assured him of shelter, so long as he needed it, in Italy, and of a free return beyond the Alps when refuge was no longer needful. Maroboduus passed the remainder of his life, eighteen years, at Ravenna. His name was sometimes employed to keep the Suevians in awe, but Tiberius warily guarded a captive whom, before the senate, he compared to Pyrrhus and Antiochus. By his inactivity during the Panno-nian war, A. d. 7—9, Maroboduus let slip the opportunity of raising Germany against Rome, and his resignation to an obscure and protracted life in exile lost him the esteem of his own coun-> trymen. He died at the age of 53 years, A. d. 35. (Strab. vii. p. 290 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 44, 45, 46, 62, 63; Veil. Pat. ii. 108 ; Suet. Tib. 37.) [W. B. D.]

MARON (Mcfyxwj'). 1. A son of Evanthes (some also call him a son of Oenopion, Seilenus. or of Bacchus, and a pupil of Seilenus, Nonn. Dionys. xiv. 99 ; Eurip. Cyclop. 141, &c.), and grandson of Dionysus and Ariadne, was a priest of Apollo at Maroneia in Thrace, where he himself had a sanc­tuary. He was the hero of sweet wine, and is mentioned among the companions of Dionysus. (Horn. Od. ix. J97, &c. ; Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 1615, 1623 j Philostr. Her. ii. 8; Athen. i. p. 33 ; Diod. i. 18.)

2. A son of Orsiphantus, and brother of Al- pheius, a Spartan hero, who had fallen at Ther­ mopylae, and was afterwards honoured with a heroum at Sparta. (Herod, vii. 227} Paus. iii. 12. §7.) [L.S.]

MARPESSA (MpTrqorffa)^ daughter of Evenus and Alcippe. (Horn. II. ix. 557; Plut. Parall. min. 40 ; Apollod. i. 7. § 8 ; comp. idas and evenus.) • ; ' [L. S.]

MARS, an ancient Roman god, who was at an early period identified by the Romans with the Greek Ares, or the god delighting in bloody war, although there are a variety of indications that the Italian Mars was originally a divinity of a very different nature. In the first place Mars bore the surname of Silvanus, and sacrifices were offered to him for the prosperity of the fields and flocks; and in the second a lance was honoured at Rome as well as at Praeneste as the symbol of Mars (Liv. xxiv. 10), so that Mars resembles more the Greek Pallas Athene than Ares. The transition from the idea of Mars as an agricultural god to that of a warlike being, was not difficult with the early Latins, as the two occupations were intimately connected. The name of the god in the Sabine and Oscan was Mamers [Mambus] ; and Mars itself is a contraction of Mavers or Mavors.

Next to Jupiter, Mars enjoyed the highest honours at Rome: he frequently is designated as father Mars, whence the forms Marspiter and Maspiter, analogous to Jupiter (Gellius, iv. 12; Macrob. Sat. i. 12, 19 ; Varro, De Ling. Lat. viii. 33) ; and Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, were the three tutelary divinities of Rome, to each of whom king Numa appointed a flamen, whose rank was sometimes thought higher even than that of the great pontiff. (Liv. viii. 9; Festus, p.. 188, ed. MUller.) Hence a very ancient sanctuary was dedicated to Mars on the Quirinal hill, near the temple of Dius Fidius, from which he derived his surname of Quirinus (Varro, De Ling. Lat. v. 52; Serv. ad Aen, i. "296), and hence he was regarded

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