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On this page: Massathes – Massfva – Massurius Sabfnus – Mastanabal – Mastor – Mater Deum – Maternianus – Maternus


seems to have escaped punishment by the favour of Domitian ; and from this time became one of the informers and great favourites of the tyrant. (Tac. Agric. 45 ; Plin. Ep. vii. 33, coirip. iii. 4, vi. 29 ; Juv. i 34.)

MASSATHES, a Numidian chief in alliance with the Carthaginians, killed by Masinissa at the battle of Zama. (Appian, Pun. 44.) [E. H. B.]

MASSFVA. 1. A Numidian, grandson of Gala, king of the Massylians, and nephew of Masinissa, whom he accompanied while yet a mere boy into Spain. At the battle of Baecula (b, c. 209), on which occasion he had for the first time been allowed to bear arms, he was taken prisoner ; but Scipio, on learning who he was, treated him with the utmost distinction, and sent him back without ransom to his uncle. This generous conduct of the Roman general is said to have had a great share in gaining over Masinissa to the Roman alliance. (Liv. xxvii. 19, xxviii. 35 ; Val. Max. v. 1. § 7.)

2. Son of Gulussa, and grandson of Masinissa. Having taken part with Adherbal in his disputes with Jugurtha, he fled to Rome after the capture of Cirta and death of Adherbal (b. c. 112). When Jugurtha himself came to Rome in b. c. 108, Mas- siva was induced by the unfavourable disposition of the senate towards that monarch, and by the instigations of the consul Sp. Albinus, to put in his own claim to the kingdom of Numidia. Jugurtha, alarmed at his pretensions, determined to rid him­ self of his rival, and, through the agency of his minister Bomilcar, succeeded in effecting the as­ sassination of Massiva. (Sail. Jug. 35 ; Liv. Ejrit. Ixiv.; Floras, iii. 2.) [E. H. B.J


MASTANABAL or MANA'STABAL (the former appears to be the more correct form of the name, see Gesenius, Ling. Phoen. Monum. p. 409), the youngest of the three legitimate sons of Masi­ nissa, between whom the kingdom of Numidia was divided by Scipio after the death of the aged king (b. c. 148). Mastanabal was distinguished for his fondness for literature and his love of justice, on which account Scipio assigned him the administration of the judicial affairs of the king­ dom. (Appian, Pun. 106; Zonar. ix. 27; Liv. Epit. 1.) We know nothing more of him, except that he died before his brother Micipsa, and that he left two sons, jugurtha and gauda. (Sail. Jug. 5, 65.) [E. H. B.]

MASTOR (Macrrftjp), two mythical personages, one the father of Lycophron in Cythera (Horn. II. xv. 430), and the other the father of Hilitherses in Ithaca, (Od. ii. 158, 253, xxiv. 451.) [L. S.]

MATER DEUM. [rhba.]

MATERNIANUS, FLA'VIUS, commander of the city guards in the reign of Caracalla, was either put to death or treated with great indignity by Macrinus, A. d. 217. (Dion Cass. Ixxviii. 4, 7, 15 ; Herodian. iv. 12.)

MATERNUS, CURIA'TIUS, one of the speakers in the "Dialogus de Causis Corruptae Eloquentiae." From that piece we learn (cc. 2, 3, 11, 13) that, abandoning rhetorical studies, he had devoted himself with success to the composition of tragedies* that four of these were entitled Medea, Thyestes, Domitim, Cato^ and that he had given offence to the ruling powers by the sentiments which he had expressed in the last named. From this circumstance we are led to conclude that he


must be the same person with the Vidrepvos ao- <t>t<Trifts, who, we are informed by Dion Cassius (Ixvii. 12), was put to death by Domitian on account of his too great freedom of speech (irappy- (ncfo/). A German scholar has recently endeavoured to prove that the Octavia found among the tragedies of Seneca, but generally considered as spurious, belongs to Maternus. (See " Octavia Praetextata Curiatio Materno Vindicata," ed. Fr. Ritter, 8vo. Bonn, 1843.) [W. R.] MATERNUS FIRMICUS. [firmicus.] MATHO (Ma0o>s), an African who served as a mercenary soldier in the army of the Carthaginians in Sicily during the first Punic war. In the mutiny which broke out among the mercenaries after their return to Africa, b. c. 241, he took so prominent a part, that he became apprehensive of being singled out for punishment, in case the mutineers should be induced to disband themselves. Hence when Gisco was at length sent to the camp at Tunis, with full powers to satisfy their demands, Matho united with Spendius, a Campanian de­ serter, who was influenced by similar motives, in persuading the soldiers to reject the proffered terms. These two leaders quickly obtained so much influence with the mixed multitude of which the army consisted, that the troops would listen to no one else, and Matho and Spendius were soon after formally appointed generals. Their first object was now to render the breach with Carthage irreparable, for which purpose they in­ duced the soldiery to seize on Gisco and the other Carthaginian deputies, and throw them into prison; after which they proceeded to declare open war against Carthage, and Matho sent messengers to the African subjects of that state, calling upon them to assert their independence. The latter were easily induced to avail themselves of an op­ portunity of throwing off a yoke which they had long felt to be galling and oppressive, and almost universally took up arms, thus at once imparting a national character to the rebellion. The two cities of Utica and Hippo alone refused to join in the revolt, and these were in consequence immediately besieged by the insurgents. Matho and Spendius now found themselves at the head of an army of 70,000 Africans, in addition to the mercenary troops originally assembled ; and having the com­ mand of the open country, they were abundantly supplied with provisions, while they held Carthage itself effectually blockaded on the land side. Hanno, who was at first appointed to take the command against them, proved no match for troops which had been trained up in Sicily under Hamilcar Barca: the rebels even surprised his camp, and obtained possession of all his baggage. The great Barca himself now took the field, forced the passage of the Bagrada, and restored the communications of the city with the open country. Hereupon the two leaders separated* and while Spendius under­ took to oppose Hamilcar in the field Matho con­ tinued to press the siege of Hippo. But the successes of Hamilcar, and still more the favourable impression produced by the clemency with which he treated those prisoners who had fallen into his hands, began once more to alarm the chiefs of the insurgents, lest the fidelity of their adherents should be shaken. They in consequence determined to render pardon impossible, by involving them all in still deeper guilt ; and Spendius and Matho united with a Gaul named Autaritus in urging the

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