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MATTHAEUS.

spect of seizing the throne. Both John and Matthaeus, however, were unable to prevent John Palaeologus from taking Constantinople in the month of January, 1355, an event which put an end at once to the reign of the father and the son, who both abdicated and retired into a convent. [joannes VI.] Matthaeus, who died before his father, or towards the end of the 14th century, was married to Irene Palaeologina, by whom he had six children. [See cantacuzbnus, genealo­ gical table.] Matthaeus Cantacuzenus was a learned man, and during his protracted residence in one of the convents of Mount Athos wrote dif­ ferent works, mostly commentaries on the Holy Scriptures, of which several are extant in MS., and one of which has been published, viz.—"Com- mentarii in Cantica Canticorum," ed. Vincentius Richardus, 1624, fol. ; he was perhaps also the au­ thor of " Commentarius in Sapientiam Salomonis," extant in MS. (Cave Hist. Lit.9 Append, p. 37. [W. P.]

MATTHAEUS (MaTrflcuos), literary and ec­clesiastical. 1. angelus, surnamed panaretus (*A.yye\os 6 Havaperos), was a Byzantine monk, who held the office of ecclesiastical quaestor, but whose time is very uncertain. Cave, however, thinks him to be identical with the monk Panaretus Protovestiarius, mentioned by Pachymeres (v. 17, 21), and who was one of the ecclesiastical ambas­sadors, whom the emperor Michael VIII. Palaeo­logus sent in 1273 (74) to pope Gregory X, and the Council of Lyon, for the purpose of effecting a re-union of the Latin and Greek churches. Mat­thaeus wrote: 1. "Antithesis contra Thomam Aquinatem de Processione Spiritus Sancti." 2. Against the same a treatise on the purgatory, en­titled Has ea-rlv 6 sv$ik&v totcos €v6a at tyvxal Kadaipovrai irptj/, &c. 3. "Dissertatio contra La­tinos de Primatu Papae." 4. " Refutatio Sex Capi-tum a Latinis editorum in Defensionem Proces-sioriis Spiritus Sancti ex Patre et Filio." 5. " Demonstratio in quot Absurditates Latini inci­dent dum Spiritum Sanctum etiam a Filio pro-cedere asserunt." 6. "Dissert, de aliis XXII. La-tinorum -Erroribus." 7. " Dissert, contra Latinos de Azymis." These works are extant in MSS. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. \o\. xi.. p. 76*; Cave, Hist. Liter. Append, p. 174, ed. Geneva.)

2. blastares. [blastares.]

3. camariota (6 Ka^aptwra), a native of either Constantinople or Thessalonica, was the son of a Greek priest who perished during the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. Mat­thaeus, the son, was also present at the capture, but survived the event. He is praised for his knowledge of philosophy and rhetorical talents. He wrote: 1. " Epistola de capta Constantinopoli," a very prolix production, the greater extant por­tion of which was translated into Latin by Theo­dore Zygomala, and published with the Greek text by M. Crusius in his " Turco-Graecia.?' 2. " Epi­tome in Hermogenem et Rhetoricae Liber." 3. " Synopsis Rhetorica." [See the following, No. 4.] 4. '' Commentarii in Synesii Epistolas." 5. " En­comium in tres Hierarchas, Basilium, Gregorium et Chrysostomum." 6. (perhaps) " Matthaei Monachi et Presbyteri Thessalonicensis de Divina Gratia et Lumine, &c." 7. " Tractatus de iis qui Spuria et Aliena decent." Matthaeus was the tutor of Georgius Scholarins. It would seem that in 1438 he accompanied John VII. Palaeologus to

MATUTA.

Italy, and was present at the councils of Ferrara and Florence; and if we can trust Phranza (iii. 19), he became, after the fall of the Greek capital, patriarch of Constantinople, under the name of Gennadius, but finally abdicated and retired into a convent. (Fabr. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 118, vol. xii. p. 107 ; Cave, Hist. Liter. Append, p. 110, ed. Geneva.)

4. camariota, a contemporary of the former, wrote: 1. "Synopsis Rhetorica," ed. Gr. et Lat. D. Hoeschelius, Augsburg, 1595, 4to.: this work seems rather to be the production of the foregoing Camariota. 2. " Orationes de Sacro Officio Pas-torali." 3. "Tres Canones lambiei s. Hymni." 4. " Canon lambicus de Christo atque ejus Cruce;" and others extant in MS. (Cave, Hist. Lit. Append, p. 110.)

5. episcopus (loniae et Asiatidis Terrae Epis-copus), a Byzantine bishop of uncertain age, wrote " Epistola ad Magnum Magnae Ecclesiae Constan-tinop. Chartophylacem," which begins tydivovros rrjs Tr6\€ws e^opTos, and is extant in MS. (Cave. Hist. Lit. Append, p. 175.)

6. hieromonachus, seems to be the same person as Matthaeus Blastares. [blastares.]

7. panaretus. [See No. 1.]

8. patriarcha, was removed from the episco­ pal see of Cyzicus to the patriarchate of Constanti­ nople ; abdicated in 1395, and died in 1408. He wrote several treatises on religious subjects, of which are extant in MS.: " Testamentum, sive Ultima Voluntas ;" " Hypotyposis sive Informatio ad seipsum et ad Episcopos sibi subjectos." If he wrote this in 1398, as is presumed, he seems to have abdicated after that year, and not as early as 1395. (Cave, Hist. Liter. Append, p. 54, ed. Geneva ; Oudin, Comment, de SS. Eccles. vol. iii. p. 2209, &c., ad an. 1400.) ' [W. P.]

MATURUS, MA'RIUS, was procurator of the maritime Alps in the war between Otho and Vitellius, A. d. 69, and enlisted on the side of the latter the mountaineers of his district. After Otho's death Maturus retained his post and was for some time faithful to Vitellius. But as he was nearly surrounded by the enemy in Narbonne and Cisalpine Gaul, and could not rely on the valour or fidelity of his Alpine levies, he reluctantly transferred his allegiance to Vespasian. (Tac. Hist. ii. 12, 13, iii. 42, 43.) [W. B. D.]

MATUTA, commonly called Mater Matuta, is usually considered as the goddess of the dawn of morning, and her name is considered to be con­nected with maturus or matutinus (Lucret. v. 655; August. De Civ. Dei. iv. 8) ; but it seems to be well attested that Matuta was only a surname of Juno (Liv. xxxiv. 53 ; P. Victor, Reg. Urb. xi.), and it is probable that the name is connected with mater, so that Mater Matuta is an analogous ex­pression with Hostus Hostilius, Faunus Fatuus, Ajus Locutius, and others. If we look to the ceremonies observed at her festival, the Matralia, which took place on the llth of June, we must infer that they were intended to enjoin that people should take care of the children of deceased brothers and sisters, as if they were their own, and that they should not be left to the mercy of slaves or hirelings, who were in fact so odious to the goddess, that she delighted in their chastisement. (Tertull. De Monogam. 17; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 16, 17.) A certain resemblance between these ceremonies and those of the Greek Leucothea led the Romans to identify Matuta and Leucothea, and thus to re-

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