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J. Horiorius arranged similar excerpta, which were published, the former in 4to., without date and without name of place or printer, but about 1500, the latter at Leipzig, 4to. 1503. These facts prove how highly the Memorabilia was valued as a storehouse where rhetoricians could at all times find a large and varied stock of striking illustrations ready for use; and Paris informs us that his epitome was intended to render these treasures more available to debaters and declaimers.
The Editio Princeps of Valerius Maximus, according to the best bibliographers, is a folio in Gothic characters, without date and without any name of place or printer, but which is known to have been the work of J. Mentelin of Strasburg, and to have appeared about 1470: this and two other very old impressions, one by Peter Schoyfer, fol. Mogunt 1471, the other by Vindelinde Spira, fol. Venet. 1471, contest the honour of being the first, and in addition, upwards of fourteen distinct editions, were published before 14,90, a sure indication of the high estimation in which the book was held.
The first critical edition was that of Aldus, 8vo. Venet. 1502 ; and the text was.gradually improved by the labours of Paulus Manutius, 8vo. Venet. 1534; of Steph. Pighius, who filled up many blanks from MSS., but did not bestow sufficient time upon his task, 8vo. Antv. Plantin. 1657 ; of Vorstius, 8vo. Berol. 1672 ; and especially of Tor-renius, 4to. Leid. 1726, whose text is still the standard, although some improvements were introduced by Kappius, 8vo. Lips. 1782 ; and much still remains in a most unsatisfactory condition.
We have an English translation, " The History of the Acts and Sayings of the Ancient Romans, written by Valerius Maximus, translated into English by W. Speed, 8vo. Lond. 1678 ;" another by Charles Lloyd was advertised in 1814 ; but it seems doubtful whether it was ever published. There is a very old half translation, half com mentary, in French, by Simon de Hesdin and Nicolas de Gonesse, commenced by the former as early as 1364, finished by the latter about 1405, and printed without date or name of place about 1476. See Memoires de'FAcademic de Belles Lettres, vol. xxxvi. p. 165. There are also several translations into French, Italian, and German, the most recent in the three languages respectively being those by Fremion, 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1827 ; by Michaele Battagia, 2 vols. 8vo. Treviro, 182] ; and by Hoffmann, 5 vols. 16mo. Stuttgard, 1828. [W. R.]
MAZACES (Ma£a«:?7s), a Persian, satrap of Egypt. He appears to have succeeded Sabaees, after the latter fell at the battle of Issus. When Amyntas with his Greek troops and some Egyptians who had joined him, appeared before Memphis, Mazaces was at first defeated ; but afterwards sallied forth at the head of his forces, while they were scattered about in search of plunder, and slew Amyntas with most of his men. [amyntas.] On the approach of Alexander, Mazaces, who had no Persian troops at his command, and finding re sistance hopeless, voluntarily submitted, and gave up to Alexander 800 talents, and all the royal stores, b. c. 332. (Arrian, iii. 1 ; Curt. iv. 1. § 30, &c., 7. § 4.) [C.P. M.]
MAZAEUS (MafaTos). 1. Satrap of Cilicia, who, with Belesys, satrap of Syria, made head against the revolted Phoenicians, in the reign of
Ochus, while the latter was preparing to march against them in person, b.c. 351 (Diod.xvi.-42). 2. A Persian officer who was sent by Dareius, at the head of a small force, to guard the passage of the Euphrates, at Thapsacus, and ravage the dis trict through which Alexander was likely to pass. He prevented the troops sent forwards by Alex ander from completing the bridges which they had begun to throw across the river, but retired on the approach of Alexander himself, and rejoined Dareius. His name occurs several times in the account of the manoeuvres which preceded the battle of Gau- gamela, and in the battle itself he headed the Persian cavalry, with which he sorely pressed Paimenio, while a detachment by his orders as saulted the Macedonian camp. After the flight of Dareius he retreated with the remnants of the army to Babylon, but made a voluntary surrender on the approach of Alexander, who appointed him satrap of Babylon, b. c. 331. (Arrian, iii. 7. § 2, iv. 18. § 4, vii. 18. § 1 ; Curt. iv. 9. §§ 7, 12, 14, iv. 12. §§ 1, 15, iv. 15. § 5, iv. 16. §§ 1, 7, v. 1. §§ 17, 43, v. 8. § 12.) [C.P. M.]
MAZARES (Ma£*ap?7s), a Mede, was sent by Cyrus into Lydia, about b. c. 545, to carry into effect there the suggestion of Croesus, that the Lydians should be prevented from bearing arms and be rendered as effeminate as possible. Mazares was also commissioned to bring pactyas, the rebel, back to Cyrus, as a prisoner. He compelled the Lydians to submit to the new regulations of the conqueror, and he succeeded in getting Pactyaa into his power. He then went against the rebels, who had besieged Tabalus, the Persian governor, in the citadel of Sardis ; and, having enslaved the Prienians, he overran the region about the Maean- der and the Magnesian plain. Soon after he was attacked by a disease which proved fatal. (Herod* i. 156—161.) [E. E.]
MEBARSAPES (Mi^apo-aVyjs), king of Adia-bene, a province of Assyria, was attacked by Trajan in his expedition against the Parthians. (Dion Cass. Ixviii. 22, with the note of Reimarus.)
MECHANEUS (M^x«^^), skilled in invent ing, was a surname of Zeus at Argos (Paus. ii. 22, § 3). The feminine form, Mechanitis (M^am^s), occurs as a surname of Aphrodite, at Megalopolis, and of Athena, in the same neighbourhood. (Paus. viii. 31, § 3, 36, § 3.) [L. S.]
MECHOPHANES, a disciple of Pausias, and apparently a distinguished painter of the Sicyonian school, is thus described by Pliny :—" Sunt quibus et Mechophanes, ejusdem Pausiae discipulus, placeat diligentia. alias durus in coloribus, et sile multus." (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 31.) [P. S.]
MECON (M77K«i>), i. e. a poppy, is said to have t>een the name of an Athenian whom Demeter 'oved, and who was metamorphosed into a poppy slant. (Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 212 ; Callim. Hymn, in Cer. 45 ; Theocrit. vii. in fin.) [L. S.I