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vol. ii. p. 690.) The Menandrean letters of Alci-phron also contain some valuable information [alciphron], They are printed by Meineke in his edition of Menander.

The fragments of Menander were first printed in the collection of Sententiae, chiefly from the New Comedy, by Morellius, Greek and Latin, Paris, .1553, 8vo. (see Hoffinann, Lexicon Bibliograph.) ; next in the similar collection of Hertelius, Greek and Latin, Basel, 1560, 8vo. ; next in that of H. .Stephanus, Greek and Latin, with the Tractatus of Stephanus, De habendo Delectu Sententiarum quae yvwjjLai a Graecis dicuntur, and the Dissertatio de Menandro of Greg. Gyraldus, 1569 (this curiously /shaped little volume, which is 4g inches long, by scarcely 2 wide, contains extracts from several poets of the Middle and New Comedy); next, Menandri et PJdlistionis Sententiae Comparator, Graece, cur. Nic. Rigaltii, excud. R. Stephanus, 1613, 8vo.; Menandri et Philistionis CTrKPICIC, c. vers. Lat. et not. Rutgersii et D. Heinsii, 1618, 8vo. (in the Few. Lect. of Rutgers) ; Menandri Fragmenta, Grace, et Lat. in H. Grotii Excerpt. ex Trag. et Com. Graec. Paris, 1626, 4to. ; Menan- dri Sententiae, in Winterton's Poet. Min, Graec., Cantab, et Lond. 1653. The first attempt at a complete critical edition was the following : — Me­ nandri et Philemonis Reliquiae, quotquot reperire potwrunt, Graece et Latine, cum notis Hug. Grotii et Joh. Clerici, &c., Amst. 1709, 8vo.: this edition was reprinted in 1732, 1752,1771, and 1777, but has been very generally condemned. Since the publication of that work there has been no edition of Menander worthy of notice, except that his Tvufjiai have had a place in the various collections of the gnomic poets, until the appearance of Meineke's Menandri et Philemonis Reliquiae, Berol. 1823, 8vo.: this admirable edition contains, besides the fragments, dissertations on the lives and writings of the two poets, and Bentley's emendations on the fragments. The fragments are reprinted by Meineke (with the annotations some­ what condensed) in the fourth volume of his Frag­ menta, Comicorum Graecorum, Berol. 1841, 8vo.; but in the first volume of that work, which con­ tains the Historia Oritica Comicorum Graecorum, he passes over the lives of Menander and Philemon, referring the reader to his former work. Meineke's collection has been also reprinted (carefully revised, and with the addition of a Latin version), by Dubner, as an appendix to the Aristophanes of Didot's Bibliotheca Scriptorum Graecorum, Paris, 1840, roy. 8vo. (For the works on Menander, see Hoffman, Lexicon Bibliogra'pJi.: the chief au­ thorities, besides Meineke, are Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 454—469 ; Bernhardy, Grundriss der Cfriechischen Litteratur, vol. ii. p. 1014; Mliller, Grk. Lit.} [P. S.]

MENANDER, minor literary persons.

1. A rhetorician of Laodiceia, on the river Lycus, wrote a commentary on the rex^n of Hermogenes, and on the irpoyv/j.vda-fjiara of Minucianus, and other works. (Suid. s. v.}

2. Of Ephesus, an historian, wrote the acts of kings among the Greeks and the barbarians (rdv «c/>' €Kdcrrov t&v jSaenAefW 7rpa|ets irapci to?s *EAA?j(n Kal &ap§dpois yevo{J.kva,s), founded on the native chronicles of the respective countries, as we learn from Josephus, who preserves a con­siderable fragment of the work respecting Hiram, king of Tyre. (Joseph, c. Apion. i. 18.) He is also,


quoted by other authors. (Vossius, de Hist. Cfrae6» p. 467, ed. Westermann.)

Menander of Pergamus, who wrote on Phoeni­cian history, appears to have been the same person, on Account of the resemblance of the fragment quoted from him by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. i. p. 140) to that quoted by Josephus. (Comp. Tatian, adv. Graec. 58.) An historian of the same name, who wrote a work on Cyprus, is quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum9 s. v. 2$</>7jK€ta. (Vos­sius, I. c.)

3. Protector (UporlKTup, i. e. body-guard}, the son of Euphratas of Byzantium, was a rhetorician and historical writer under the emperor Mauricius, whose reign began in a. d. 581. He has left us an account of his own literary pursuits, in a fragment preserved by Suidas (s. v). He continued the his­tory of the Eastern Empire from the point where Agathias broke off, namely, the twenty-third year of Justinian, A. d. 558, down nearly to the death of Tiberius II. in A. d. 583. . A considerable frag­ment of this history is preserved in the Eclogae of embassies, published by Hoeschel, Aug. Vindol. 1603. Menander is often quoted by Suidas, and is mentioned by Theophylact of Simocatta (Hist. Mauric. i. 3), who continued his history, and by Constantinus Porphyrogenitus (Tliem. i. 2). Ac­cording to Niebuhr (Desdpp. p. 281), he may be trusted as an historian, but his style is a close imi­tation of Agathias, varied by occasional ridiculous attempts at fine writing. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vii. pp. 540, 541 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 329, ed. Westermann.) There is one epigram by him in the Greek Anthology. (Jacobs, vol. xiii. p. 916.)

A few insignificant writers of the same name are mentioned by Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. ii, p. 454) and Meineke (Menand. et PMlem. Jfcsliq. pp. xxxvii.—xxxix.) [P. S.]

MENAS (Mrjz/as). 1. A Lacedaemonian, was one of the commissioners for ratifying the fifty years' truce between Athens and Sparta in b. c. 421, and also the separate treaty of alliance between these states in the same year. (Thuc. v. 19, 24.)

2. A Bithynian, whom Prusias II. (Kvvny6s), sent to Rome in b. c. 149, to join with Nk- comedes (son of Prusias) in an application to the senate to remit the remainder of the sum which they had compelled him to engage to pay to Attalus II. of Pergamus in b. c. 154. The counter- representations, however, of Andronicus, the envoy of Attalus, prevailed, and the senate decided against Prusias. In the event of failure, Menas had received a command from Prusias to put Ni- comedes to death, in order to make way for his sons by a second wife ; but he shrank from doing so, and entered into a conspiracy with Nicomedes and Andronicus against his master, inducing the 2000 soldiers whom Prusias had sent with him, to transfer their allegiance to Nicomedes. (App. Miihr. 4,5 ; comp. Just, xxxiv. 4 ; Liv. Epit. 50 5 Polyb. xxxiii. 11, xxxvii. 2; Diod. xxxii. Eclog. iv. p. 523.) [E. E.]

MENAS (M-typas), a freedman of Pompey the Great and of Sextus Pompeius. Appian calls hin\ MENOPORUS (Mr)v6do>pos), a name which he may not improbably have taken on his manumis­sion. (See Dyer in the Classical Museum, vol. ii. p. 218.) In b. c. 40, Sextus Pompeius, being then in alliance with Antony against Octavian, sent out Menas with a large squadron of ships and four

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