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times reckoned as a part of Phoenicia,, sometimes not. He seems to have been a hearer of Diogenes. He amassed great wealth as a usurer (ij-uepoScwei-(rrrjs), but was cheated out of it all, and committed suicide. Diogenes, who has given us a short life of him, with an epigram of his own upon him (ii. 99—100), informs us that he wrote nothing serious, but that his books were full of jests, like those of his contemporary Meleager; and Strabo and Stephanus call him (nrov^6ye\oios; that is, he was one of those cynic philosophers who threw all their teaching into a satirical form. In this character he is several times introduced by Lucian, who in one place speaks of him as twj> iraXa,i&v KvvcSv fjuz\a, v\aKtiicctv Kal Kapxapov (BisAccus. 33).
Even in the time of Diogenes, his works were somewhat uncertain; and they are now entirely-lost : but we have considerable fragments of Varro's Saturae Menippeae^ which were written in imitation of Menippus. (Cic. Acad. i. 2,8; Gell. ii. 18; Macrob. Sat. i. 11.) The recent edition of the fragments of Varro by Oehler contains a short but excellent dissertation on the date of Menippus, whom he places at b. c. 60.
The works of Menippus were, according to Diogenes (vi. 101), thirteen in number, namely, "NeKvia, AiaQijKat, 'ETTtcrroAai K€KOfj.^€V(JLevai airb tov t&v &£&v irpocrwwov* irpbs rovs cbvcriKovs Ka.1
I 71 I -
juaOquaTiKotis real ypa^aTiKo^^ Kal yovas E?n-Kotipov Kal ras S-prjcrKsvojuevas vtt* avr&v eiwaSas, and others. (Comp. Menag. Observ. in too.)
3. Of Stfatonice, a Carian by birth, was the most accomplished orator of his time in all Asia. (About b. c. 79.) Cicero, who heard him, puts him almost on a level with the Attic orators (Brut. 91 ; Pint. Cic. 4 ; Diog. Laert. vi, 101 ; Strab. xiv. p. 660).
4. Of Pergaraus, a geographer, lived in the time of Augustus, and wrote a IlepiTrAous Trjs evrbs fraXoTTTj?, of which an abridgement was made by Marciahus, and of which some fragments are pre served. He is also quoted several times by Ste phanus Byzantiniis. (See Hoffmann, Menippos der Geograph. Leipz* 184L) [P. S.]
MENIPPUS, artists. Diogenes Laertius (vi. 101) mentions a statuary and two painters of this name. [P. S.]
MENOCHARES (Mrivoxapr)s)9 an officer of Demetrius Soter, king of Syria. In b. c. 161, when Demetrius had escaped from Rome and established himself on the Syrian throne, he sent Me-iiochares to plead his cause witli Tiberius Gracchus [No. 6.] and his fellow-commissioners, then in Cappadocia. In the following year, Menochares was sent by Demetrius to Rome, to conciliate the senate by the present of a golden crown and the surrender of Leptines, the assassin of Cn. Octavius, the Roman envoy. (Polyb. xxxi. 4,6 ; Diod. xxxi. Exc. /.e^.xxv. j>. 626.) [leptines, No. 6.] [E.E.]
MENODORUS, ifeedman of Pompey. [Mfi- NAS.J . . ; • : .
MENODORUS (M7]j/o5wpos), a writer on bo tany and materla medica, quoted by Athenaeus (Deipnos. ii. p. 59), who says he was a follower of Erasistratits, and a friend of the physician Hice- sius. He lived, therefore, probably at the end of the first century b. c., and is perhaps the person who is quoted by Andromachus (ap. Gal. de Compos. Medicam. sec. Locos, vii. 3, vol. xiii. p. 64). [W.A. G.]
MENODORUS (Merffapos), of.-Athens, a
sculptor, who made for the Thespians a copy of the celebrated statue of Eros by Praxiteles, which originally stood at Thespiae, but was removed to Rome by the emperor Caligula. (Paus. ix. 27. §§ 3, 4, Bekker.) The date of this artist can only be conjectured by supposing that his copy was made about the same time that the original was removed, in order to supply its loss. There is nothing to determine whether or no he was the same person as the statuary mentioned by Pliny, who made athletas et armatos et venatores^ sacri-ficantesque (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34). [P. S.] MENO'DOTUS (Mcz/oSoros). 1. Of Samoa,-was the author of at least two works connected with the history of his native island. One bore the title T<£j/ Knrot, Sa^oi/ evi>6%tav dvaypatytf, and the other Ilepl rwv kot& r6 lepbv rijs Sajufas^Hpas. (Athen. xiv. p. 655, xv. pp. 672, 673.)
3. The author of a work on the Athenian painter Theodoras. (Diog. Laert. ii. 104.) [L. S.] .MENO'DOTUS (Mrji/o'SoTos), a physician of Nicomedeia in Bithynia, who was a pupil of An- tiochus of Laodiceia, and tutor to Herodotus of Tarsus ; he belonged to the medical sect of the Empirici, and lived probably about the beginning of the second century after Christ. (Diog. Laert. ix. §116; Galen, De Meih. Med. ii. 7, vol. x. p. 142, Introd. c. 4. vol. xiv. p. 683 ; Sext. Empir. Pyrrhon. Hypotyp. i. § 222, p. 57, ed. Fabric.) He refuted some of the opinions of Asclepiades of Bithynia (Gal. De Nat. Facult. i. 14, vol. ii. p. 52), and was exceedingly severe against the Dog- matici (id. De Subfig. Empir. c. 9, 13, vol. ii. pp. 343, 346, ed. Chart.). He enjoyed a considerable reputation in his day, and is several times quoted and mentioned by Galen. (De Cur. Rat. per Ven< Sect. c. 9, vol. xi. p. 277 ; Comment, in Hippocr. " De Artic" iii. 62, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 575 ; Comment, in Hippocr." De Rat. Vict. in Morb. Acut." iv. 17, vol. xv. p. 766 ; De Libr. Propr. c. 9, vol. xix. p. 38 ; De Compos* Medicam. sec. Locos, vi. i. vol. xii. p. 904.) He appears to have written some works which are quoted by Diogenes Laertius, but are not now ex tant. There is, however, among Galen's writings a short treatise entitled, TaXfyov HapaQp&ffTov rov Mrj^oSoTov Upor^irriKOs Aoyos cirl ray Tex^ay, Galeni Paraphrastae Menodoti Suasoria ad Artes Oratio. This is supposed to have been, written originally by Menodotus, and afterwards revised and polished by Galen ; but its history is not quite satisfactorily made out, and its genuine ness (as far as Galen is concerned) has been doubted. Its object is sufficiently expressed by the title, and it is composed in a somewhat decla matory style, which has perhaps caused it to bo both unduly admired, and unjustly depreciated. On the one hand, Erasmus translated it himself into Latin, and it has been several times published apart from Galen's other works ; and on the other, a .writer in the Cambridge Museum Criticum (vol. ii. p. 318) calls it "a very inferior composition, incorrect hi language, inelegant in arrangement, and weak in argument." Perhaps the latest edi tion is that by Abr. Willet, Greek and Latin, 8vo* Lugd. Bat. 1812. [W. A. G.I MENO'DOTUS, sculptor. [diodotus, No. 2.] MENOECEUS (M«yow«Jy). 1. A Theban,