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Episcoporum Judiciis^ &c. (Cave, Hist. Lit. ad an. 1043; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. xi. pp.195, 196.)
7. ephesius, archbishop of Ephesus, the author of valuable scholia to Aristotle, especially the Metaphysica, was, according to some, no other than the emperor Michael Ducas Parapinaces, who was, appointed to the see of Ephesus after his forced abdication in 1078. Others pretend that the scholia ought to be ascribed to Michael Psellus. [psellus.] (Leo Allatius, De Psellis, p. 40.)
8. grammaticus^ perhaps the same as Michael Psellus, wrote Epigramma in Agathiam, printed in the third vol. of Brunek's Analecta Vet. Poet. Grdec., in the third vol. of Jacobs' Anthologia Graeca, and in some other collections. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 482, vol. xi. p. 204.)
9. monachus, ecclesiae Constaritinopolitanae presbyter and Ignatii patriarchae syncellus, wrote, 1. Encomium Ignatii Patriarchae (who died in 877), edited Greek and Latin, in a very mutilated form, by Raderus in his Acta Concilii, Ingol-stadt, 1604, 4to., also in the eighth vol. of the Concilia. 2. Encomium in Angelicorum Ordinum Ductores, Micliaelem et Gabrielem. 3. Encomium in gloriosum Christi Apostolum Philippum. 4. Perhaps Vita et Miracula Sti Nicolai. 5. Vita Theodori Studitae, of which Baronius gives some fragments in his Annales ad an. 795 and 826. The complete text with a Latin translation was published by Jacobus de la Baune in the fifth vol. of Opera Sirmondi, Paris, 1696, fol. The life of Theodore Studita, as well as one or two of the other productions, were perhaps written by another Michael Monachus, a contemporary and survivor of Studita who died as early as 826. The author of this life was a very incompetent writer. (Cave, Hist. Lit. ad an. 878 ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol.xi. p. 205)
11. prochirus, of uncertain age, the author of Dramation, Musarum et Fortunae Querimonium continens, et alia, ed. Graec. et Lat. F. Morellus, Paris, 1593, 1598,8vo.; also in Maittaire's Miscellanea Graecor. aliquot Scriptor. Carmina, London, 1722, 4to. (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. xi. p. 206.)
12. presbyter, lived in the 9th century, wrote De Construciione Partium Orationis s. Methodus de Orationis Construciione^ extant in MS. in Milan, and in the Escurial libraries, which is probably the same as Uepl crvvrd^ws t&v faiJ.dTwi', ascribed to Georgius Lecapenus, under whose name it was published, together with Theo-dorus Gaza, at Florence, 1515, 1520, 8vo.; with others;, ibid. 1526, 8vo.; and in Grammaiici Graec. Venice, 1525, 8vo. (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. vi. p. 133.)
13. psellus. [psell.us.]
14. sbirus. [sbirus.]
17. synodensis, or more correctly synna-densis, bishop of Synnada or Synnas, in Phrygia, of uncertain age, wrote Eocpositio Maodmorum Miraculorum SS. Archangelorum. (Leo Allatius, De Symeonibus,]). 107.)
18. thessalonicensis, magister rhetorum and magnae ecclesiae protecdicus, lived about 1160, and embraced the wide-spread Bogomilian heresy, for which he suffered severe persecutions till he teturned to the orthodox church. He wrote Con-
fessio Brevis> extant in Leo Allatius's De Consensu utnusque Ecclesiae^ lib. ii. c. 12. (Fabric. Bibl, Graec. vol. xi. p. 702.) [W. P.]
2. An Athenian orator and demagogue, who, together with Eurycleides, possessed the chief direction of affairs in his native city about b. c. 216. They were guilty of the most abject flattery towards the surrounding monarchs, but especially towards Ptolemy Philopator; and it was probably their partiality towards the latter that led Philip V., king of Macedonia, to procure their removal by poison. (Polyb. v. 106; Paus. ii. 9. § 6.) Pau- sanias writes the name Micon, but the authority of Polybius in favour of the form Micion is con firmed by the evidence of coins, on which the two names of Micion and Eurycleides are found asso ciated together. [E. H. B.]
MICIPSA (Mt/ctyas), king of Numidia, was the eldest of the sons of Masinissa who survived their father. He is first mentioned in b* c. 150^ as being sent by Masinissa, together with his brother Gulussa, ambassador to Carthage, to demand the restoration of the partisans of Masinissa who had been driven into exile: but the Carthaginians shut the gates of the city against them, arid refused to listen to their proposals. (Appian, Pun. 70.) After the death of Masinissa (b. c. 148), the sovereign power was divided by Scipio between Micipsa and his two brothers, Gulussa and Mas-tanabal, in such a manner that the possession of Cirta. the capital bf Numidia, and the treasures accumulated there, together with the financial administration of the kingdom, fell to the share of Micipsa, (Id. ibid. 106; Liv. Epit. 1.; Zonar. ix, 27.) It was not long, however, before the death of both his brothers left him in possession of the undivided sovereignty of Numidia, which he held from that time without interruption till his death. But few events of his long reign have been transmitted to us. He appears indeed to have been of a peaceful disposition ; and after the fall of Carthage, he had no neighbours who could excite his jealousy.
With the Romans he took care to cultivate a good understanding ; and we find him sending an auxiliary force to assist them in Spain against Viiiathus (b.c. 142); and again in the more arduous war against Numantia. (Appian, Hisp. 67 ; Sail. Jug. 7.) On the latter occasion his auxiliaries were commanded by his nephew, Ju-giirtha, whom he had brought up with his own sons, and whom he was even induced to adopt; but the intrigues and ambition of the young man threw a cloud over the declining years of Micipsa, and filled him with apprehensions for the future. Jugurtha, however, was prudent enough to repress his ambitious projects during the lifetime of Micipsa : and the latter died at an advanced age in b.c. 118, having, on his death-bed, urged on his two sons, Adherbaland Hiempsal,and their adopted brother, the necessity of that harmony and concord which he but too well foresaw there was little chance of their preserving. (Sail. Jug. 5— 11; Liv. Epit. Ixii.; Oros. v. 15 ; Florus, iii. 2.)
Towards the close of the reign of Micipsa, Numidia was visited by a dreadful pestilence, which