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bishops, presented to the emperor. To the astonishment of all, Theodosius selected Nectarius, and persisted in his choice, even when it was ascertained that he had not yet been baptized. The bishops at last acceded to the wish of the monarch, who had so stoutly opposed the Arians, while the people, attracted probably by the gentle manners and the venerable appearance of the man, presenting as he did every way a strong contrast to Gregory, loudly applauded the choice. Nectarius was baptized, and, before he had time to put off the white robes of a neophyte, he was declared bishop of Constantinople. Most important matters came under the consideration of the council, over which it is probable he was now called to preside. He showed his discretion by putting himself under the tuition of Cyriacus, bishop of Adana ; but we can hardly believe that he took any active part in the theological questions which were discussed. It is doubtful whether the canons that were enacted, under the name of the second oecumenical council, were not passed at two different sessions, a second taking place in 382. But this does not matter much, as they all bear the name of this council. The principal business transacted in the council, theologically considered, related to the confirming and extending of the Nicene Creed, mainly to meet the opinions of the Macedonians. The creed thus enlarged is that used at the mass of the Roman Catholic church. Other canons regulated discipline, the restriction of the authority of each bishop to his own diocese, and the restoration of penitent heretics. The most important article of all, however, historically considered, was one which was conceded not more to the natural propriety of the arrangement, than to the personal favour which the emperor bore to Nectarius. It was decreed, that as Constantinople was New Rome, the bishop should be next in dignity to the bishop of Rome, and hold the first place among the Eastern prelates. This, which was at first a mere mark of dignity, became a source of substantial power, embroiled Constantinople with Rome, and -was pregnant with all those circumstances that have marked this important schism. Nectarius was the first who held the dignity of ex offitio head of the Eastern bishops, as patriarch of Constantinople. These canons were signed on the 9th of July, 381. The zeal of Theodosius in the extirpation of Arianism led to the summoning of a council (not oecumenical) at Constantinople, in July, 383. There assembled the chiefs of all the sects. By the advice of Sisinnius, afterwards a Novatian bishop, given through Nectarius, the emperor ensnared his opponents into an approval of the writings of the early fathers. He then required of each sect a confession of its faith, which, having read and considered, he condemned them all, and followed up this condemnation by the most stringent laws, for the purpose of entirely rooting them out. As might have been expected, Nectarius was obnoxious to the Arians, and we find that in 388, while the emperor Theodosius was absent in Italy, opposing Maximus, a rumour that had arisen of the defeat and death of the prince having excited their hopes, a riot ensued, in the course of which they set fire to the house of Nectarius. In the year 390, Nectarius, alarmed by the public odium which had been excited by the seduction of a woman of quality by a deacon, abolished the practice of confession which had been introduced into
the Eastern church—a penitential priest having been appointed, whose office it was to receive the confessions of those who had fallen into sin, after baptism, and prescribe acts of penitence previously to their being admitted to partake of the privileges of .the church. The last council (not oecumenical) at which Nectarius presided was held in Constan tinople in 394, regarding a dispute as to the bishopric of Bostria. Nectarius survived his patron, Theodosius, two years, dying on the 27th of September, 397. He seems to have borne his honours meekly, and to have acted with great dis cretion. In the subtle controversies that agitated the church, we learn that he avoided discussion himself, and was guided by the advice of men better skilled in the puzzling dialectics of the time. If the conjecture of Tillemont (vol. ix. p. 486) be correct, he was married, and had one son. His brother Arsatius succeeded John Chrysostom as patriarch of Constantinople. (Fleury, Hist. Eccles. vol. iv. v. cc. 18, 19; Socrat. H. E. v. 8, 13 ; Sozom. //. E. vii. 8, 9, 14, 16, viii. c. 23.) Nec tarius wrote (Cave doubts this) a homily De S. Theodora, a martyr, whose festival is held by tho Greek church on the first sabbath of Lent. The original is said to exist in several libraries, and a Latin version was printed, Paris, 1554, with some Homilies of Chrysostom. Also his Sententia Sy- nodalis de Episcopatu Bostrensi, is given in Jure Grace. Roman, lib. iv. (Fabric. Bill. Grace, vol. ix. p. 309, vol. x. p. 333; Cave, Hist. Lit. vol. i. p. 277.) [W. M. G.]
NEDA (NeSa), an Arcadian nymph, from whom the river Neda and also a town (Steph. Byz. s. v.) derived their name. She was believed, conjointly with Theisoa and Hagno, to have nursed the infant Zeus (Callim. Hymn, in Jov. 38 ; Pans. viii. 38. § 3). In a Messenian tradition Neda and Ithome were called nurses of Zeus (Paus. iv. 33. § 2). She was represented at Athens in the temple cf Athena. (Paus. viii. 47. § 2.) [L. S.]
NEDUSIA (NeSouo-fa), a surname of Athena, under which she had a sanctuary on the river Nedon (from which she derived the name), and another at Poieessa in the island of Cos. The latter was said to have been founded by Nestor on his return from Troy, and to have derived its name from Nedon, a place in Laconia. (Strab. viii. p. 360, x. p. 487 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. NeScoz/.) [L.S.] NEIS (Nrjfs), a daughter of Zethus, or of Am-phion by Niobe, from whom the Neitian gate at Thebes was believed to have derived its name (Schol. ad Eurip. Phoen. 1104). According to Pausanias Neis was a son of Zethus (ix. 8. § 3). [L. S.]
NELEIDES, NELEIADES, and NELEIUS (N77Ae#>77s, NrjA^iaSTys, NrjA^i'os), patronymics of Neleus, by which either Nestor, the son of Neleus, or Antilochus, his grandson, is designated. (Horn. //. viii. 100, xi. 617, x. 87, xxiii. 514 ; Ov. Met. xii. 553 ; Herod, v. 65.) [L. S.]
NELEUS (N?7Aeuy), a son of Cretheus and Tyro, the daughter of Salmoneus. Tyro, pj»vious to her marriage with Neleus, is said to have loved the river-god Enipeus ; and in the form of Enipeus Poseidon once appeared to her, and became by her the father of Pelias and Neleus (Horn. Od. xi. 234, &c.). Tyro exposed the two boys, but they were found and reared by horse-herds, and when they had grown up they learned who their mother was, and Pelias killed their foster-mother, who had ill-used Tyro (Apollod. i. 9. § 8).