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of the three generals who were sent by Lysias, the regent of Syria during the absence of Antiochus IV., to reduce the revolted Jews. They advanced as far as Emmaus, where they were totally defeated by Judas Maccabaeus, b. c. 165. (1 Mace, iii. iv., 2 Mace. viii.; Joseph. Ant. xii. 7. §§ 3, 4.) He is previously mentioned as holding an administrative office in Palestine. (Joseph, ib. xii. 5. §5.)
13. A friend of Demetrius I. king of Syria, who had been detained, together with that monarch, as a hostage at Rome, and was one of the companions of his flight. (Polyb. xxxi. 22 ; Joseph. Ant. xii. 10. § 4.) When Demetrius was established on the throne of Syria, he despatched Nicanor, whom he had promoted to the dignity of elephantarch, or master of the elephants, with a large army into Judaea to reduce the Jews, who were still in arms under Judas Maccabaeus. Nicanor at first attempted to make himself master of the person of the Jewish leader by treachery, under pretence of a peaceful negotiation, but, having failed in this, he gave him battle at Capharsalem, and was defeated with heavy loss. A second action, near Bethoron, proved still more disastrous: Nicanor himself fell on the field, and his whole army was cut to pieces. (Joseph. Ant. xii. 10. §§ 4,5; 1 Mace, vii., 2 Mace. xiv. xv.) [E. H. B.]
NICANOR (Ni/cai/wp). 1. Aristotle's adopted son, repeatedly mentioned in his will, whom the philosopher destined to be his son-in-law. (Diog. Laert. v. 12.) [See Vol. I. p. 317.]
2. A person mentioned in the will of Epicurus. (Diog. Laert. x. 20.)
3. A celebrated grammarian, who lived during the reign of the emperor Hadrian, A. D. 127. According to Suidas (s. v.) he was of Alexandria ; according to Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. 'lepctTro-Ats) he was of Hierapolis. His labours were principally directed to punctuation, hence he received the ludicrous name of ^r^on-fas (Suidas, /. c.), and, from his having devoted much of his attention to the elucidation of Homer's writings, through means of punctuation, he is called by Stephanus (I.e.) 6 i/6 os"Ofjuipos. He wrote, also, on the punctuation of Callimachus, and a work Ilcpi KaQ6\ov <TTiyfM]s. He is copiously quoted in the Scholia Marciana on Homer. (Fabric. Bill. Grace, vol. i. pp. 368, 517, vol. iii. p. 823, vol. vi. p. 345.)
4. Of Cos. He wrote a commentary on Theocritus, quoted in the Scholia on vii. 6. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. pp. 781, 798.)
5. Stephanus Byzantinus mentions a writer of this name to whom he adds that of Aearfyos, as the author of a work called Meropojuacrfay. Athe- imeus quotes the same work, but calls the writer a Cyrenian, without giving him the surname. This is probably the same writer with the Nicanor men tioned in connection with'the ancient origin of the Egyptians by the Scholiast on Apollonius Rhodius, iv. 262. (Steph. Byz. s. v. "YSrj; Athen. vii. p. 296, d; Apoll. Rhod. p. 160, ed. Wel- lauer.) [W. M. G.]
NICANOR, SAE'VIUS, is celebrated by Suetonius as the first grammarian who acquired fame and honour among the Romans by teaching. He was the author of commentaries, the greater portion of which was said to have been suppressed (intercepta dicitur}> and of a satire where he declares himself to have been a freedman, and to have been distinguished by a double cognomen,—
Suetonius adds, that, according to some accounts, in consequence of reports affecting his character, he retired to Sardinia and there died. (Sueton. de JUustr. Gramm. 5.) [W. R.]
NICANOR, of Paros, an encaustic painter, of whom we know nothing except that he painted in encaustic before Aristeides. (Plin. H, N. xxxv. 11, s. 39.) [P. S.]
NICARCHUS (Nfoapxos), historical. 1. An Arcadian officer among the Greek forces who went to assist the younger Cyrus. When the Greek generals were treacherously assassinated by Tissa-phernes, Nicarchus was severely wounded, but not killed, and came and informed the Greeks of what had taken place. He was subsequently induced to go over to the Persians, taking about twenty men with him (Xen. Anab. ii. 5. § 33, iii. 3. §5).
2. One of the generals of Antiochus. We find him serving in Coelesyria in the war between Antiochus and Ptolemaeus. Together with Theo-dotus he superintended the siege of Rabbatamana, and with the same general headed the phalanx at the battle of Raphia [antiochus, Vol. I. p. 196], (Polyb. v. 69, 71, 79, 83, 85.) [C. P. M.]
2. An epigrammatist. Reiske (//. Notit. p. 249), on insufficient grounds, conjectures he was a na tive of Samos. From the use of a Latin word in one of his epigrams (Jacobs, Antli. Graec. vol. iii. p. 66), we conclude that he lived at Rome. The inference that he lived near the beginning of the second century of the Christian era seems well founded. It is drawn not only from the general style of his writings, but from the fact, that in one of his epi grams (xxxi.) he satirizes Zopyrus, an Egyptian physician. From Plutarch (Symp. iii. 6) we learn that a physician of this name was his contemporary, and Celsus (v. 23) mentions Zopyrus in connec tion with king Ptolemy. (Jacobs, Anthol. Grace. vol. xiii. p. 922.) Thirty-eight epigrams are given under his name in the Greek Anthology. (Jacobs, vol. iii. p. 58, &c.) But the authorship of seven of these is doubtful. On the other hand, the third of Lollius Bassus, and four others of uncertain authorship, are assigned to him. The merit of these epigrams is not great. They are mostly satirical, and are often absurdly extravagant. What is worse, they are sometimes disfigured with gross- ness and obscenity. (Jacobs, Anthol. Graec. U. cc» and vol. x. p. 17, &c.; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. p. 484.) [W. M. G.]
2. A courtezan, and proprietress of courtezans, amongst others of Neaera, against whom we have an oration of Demosthenes, Kard Neeupas. Athe-naeus (xiii. p. 593, f) mentions her, but a comparison of his statements with those of Demosthenes (especially p. 1351, ed. Reiske) will show that, if the text be correct, he has misrepresented the statements of the orator.