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IIA$1ON, has been mentioned byEckhel (vol. iii. p. 87).
4. An Athenian, who was put to death together with Phocion (b. c. 318), to whom he had always been attached by the warmest personal friendship : on which account he begged as a last favour to be allowed to drink the poison before his illustrious friend, a request which Phocion unwillingly conceded. (Plut. Plioc. 35, 36.)
5. Tyrant of Sicyon, to which position he raised himself by the murder of Paseas, who had succeeded his son Abantidas in the sovereign power [abantidas]. He had reigned only four months, during which period he had already driven into exile eighty of the citizens, when the citadel of Sicyon (which had narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the Aetolians shortly before) was surprised in the night by a party of Sicyonian exiles, headed by young Aratus. The palace of the tyrant was set on fire, but Nicocles himself made his escape by a subterranean passage, and fled from the city. Of his subsequent fortunes we know nothing. (Plut. lArat. 3—9 ; Paus. ii. 8 § 3; Cic. de Of. ii. 23.)
2. A Lacedaemonian, was the teacher of gram mar to the emperor Julian (Socrat. iii. 1). From the words of Socrates we may infer that he was a Christian. This Nicocles is perhaps the same as the one mentioned in the Etymologicum Magnum (s. v. (TKaAoiJ/). Libanius (vol. i. p. 24) likewise mentions a rhetorician of Constantinople of this name. (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. vi. p. 373; Wester- mann, GeschicJite der Griechisclien Beredtsamkeit, § 102, n. 1.) [L. S.]
NICOCRATES (NiKOKpdrys). 1. A Cyprian of this name collected an extensive library, in very early times. (Athen. i. p, 3, a.)
3. A Lacedaemonian rhetorician twice referred to by Seneca. (Suasor. ii. ad extr. Controver. iii. 20, ad extr.) In the latter passage, he calls him aridus et exsiccus declamator. Westermann (Gesch. der Griech. Beredt. p. 188) calls him Ni-cocratus.
4. A writer, otherwise unknown, quoted re garding a report that no one could sleep on the island of Aegae, sacred to Poseidon, on account of the god's appearance on the island, by the Scho liast on Apoll. Rhod. i. 831. [W. M. G.]
NICOCREON (NiKOKpfav), 1. King of Sa-lamis in Cyprus, at the time of Alexander's expedition into Asia. He submitted to the conqueror in commop with the other princes of Cyprus, without opposition ; and in b.c. 331, after the return of Alexander from Egypt, repaired to Tyre to pay homage to that monarch, where he distinguished himself by the magnificence which he displayed in
furnishing the theatrical exhibitions. (Plut. Ale«x, 29.) After the death of Alexander he took part with Ptolemy against Antigonus, and in b. c. 315, we find him actively co-operating with Seleucus and Menelaus, the generals of Ptolemy, in effecting the reduction of those cities of Cyprus which had espoused the opposite cause. In return for these services he subsequently obtained from Ptolemy the territories of Citium, Lapethus, Ceryneia, and Marion, in addition to his own, and was entrusted with the chief command over the whole island. (Diod. xix. 59, 62, 79.) We know nothing of the fortunes of Nicocreon after this: but as no mention occurs of his name during the memorable siege of Salamis, by Demetrius (b. c. 306), or the great sea-fight that followed it, it seems probable that he must have died before those events. The only personal anecdote transmitted to us of Nicocreon is his putting to death in a barbarous manner the philosopher Anaxarchus in revenge for an insult which the latter had offered him on the occasion of his visit to Alexander. (Cic. Tusc. ii. 22, de Nat. Deor. iii. 33 j Plut. de Virt. p. 449 ; Diog. Laert. ix. 59.)
NICODAMUS (Ni/co'SaAios), a statuary of Maenalus in Arcadia, made statues of the Olympic victors Androsthenes, Antiochus, and Damoxeni-das ; one of Athena, dedicated by the Eleians ; and one of Hercules, as a youth, killing the Nemean lion with his arrows, dedicated at Olympia by Hippotion of Tarentum. (Paus. v. 6. § 1, 26, § 5, vi. 6. § 1, 3. § 4, x. 25. $ 4.) Since Androsthenes conquered in the pancratium in the 90th Olympiad, b. c. 420 (Thuc. v. 49), the date of Nico-damus may be placed about that time. [P. S.]
NICODEMUS (Nt/coS^os), historical. 1. A tyrant of Centoripa in Sicily, who was driven out by Timoleon, b. c. 339. (Diod. xvi. 82.)
2. An Athenian of the deme Aphidnae, a partizan of Eubulus. He was murdered by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus. Demosthenes, for no other reason apparently than that he was opposed to the party of Eubulus, was suspected of having been privy to the murder (Dem. Meid. p. 549 ; Schol. Ulpian. ad p. 548 ; Deinarch. c. Dem. p. 24, ed., Reiske).
A man of the name of Nicodemus also figures in the speech of Isaeus, Trepl rov Tlvppov K\7jpou.
3. A Messenian, mentioned by Plutarch (Dem. p. 852, a.), who contrasts his political tergiversation (he had first espoused the cause of Cassander, afterwards that of Demetrius) with the conduct of Demosthenes.
4. A native of Elis, sent by Philopoemen at the head of an embassy to Rome, b.c. 187. (Polyb. xxiii. 1, 7.) [C. P. M.]
NICODEMUS (NtKoSrfcos), of Heracleia. Seven epigrams written by him have by an inadvertence of Brunck been attributed to Nicodemus, the physician of Smyrna. They are of the childish class of epigrams, called dvTHTTpe-(povTa, or dvaKvK\iKa9 in which the sense is the same, though each distich be read from end to beginning, instead of from beginning to end. The epigrams of Nicodemus consist of two lines each, in the elegiac measure, and seem to have been principally inscriptions for statues and pic-
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