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NICOMEDES.

gave rise to the most injurious suspicions, which were never afterwards forgotten by the enemies of Caesar (Suet. Caes. 2, 49 ; Plut. Caes. 1). Niep-medes died at the beginning of the year b. c. 74, and having no children, by his will bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people. Mithridates, how­ever, set up an impostor, whom he pretended to be the legitimate son of Nicomedes, and whose claims to the throne he prepared to support by arms. For the events that followed see mithridates. (Eutrop. vi. 6 ; Liv. Epit. xciii.; App. Mithr. 71 ; Epist. Mithr. ad Arsac. ap. Sail. Hist. iv. p. 239, ed. Gerlach.)

Great confusion has been made by many modern writers in regard to the later kings of Bithynia, and it has been frequently supposed that there were not three but four kings of the name of Nico­medes. It is, however, certain from Appian (Mithr. 10), that Nicomedes III., who was ex­pelled by Mithridates, was the grandson of Prusias II. j nor is there any reasonable doubt that he was the same who bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, and was consequently the last king of Bithynia. A passage of Appian (Mithr. 7) which seems to assert the contrary, is certainly either erroneous or corrupt; and Syncellus (p. 276, c.), who reckons eight kings of Bithynia, beginning with Zipoetes, probably included Socrates, the brother of Nicomedes III., in his enumeration. (See on this subject Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 444, 445 ; Visconti, Iconographie Grecque, vol. ii. p. 191 ; Orelli, Ono-mast. Tull. p. 420 ; and Clinton, F. H. vol. iii. p. 418—420.)

Nicomedes III., as well as his father, takes on his coins the title of Epiphanes. They can be distinguished only by the difference of physiognomy, and by the dates, which refer to an era commencing B. c. 288, during the reign of Zipoetes [zipoetes].

[E. H. B.]

COIN OF NICOMEDES III.

NICOMEDES (Nt/co^Srjs), literary. 1. A commentator on Orpheus. (Athen. xiv. p. 637, a. b.)

2. Of Acanthus, quoted regarding the age of Perdiccas. (Athen. v. 217, d.)

3. A commentator on Heracleitus. (Diog. Laert. ix. 15.)

4. The writer of annotations on the 'AvaXvriKci irporepa. of Aristotle, which exist in some libraries, but are unedited. (Fabric. BiU. Graec. vol. iii. p. 215.)

5. Of Pergamus, a rhetorician, and a pupil of Chrestus, flourished in the second century of the Christian era. (Philost. Vit. Soph. ii. 11.)

6. Of Smyrna, a physician and epigrammatist. Brunck has inadvertently attributed to him eight epigrams that belong to Nicodemus. We have two epigrams written by him, both votive, and engraved on the same statue, which was one of Aesculapius, fabricated by the sculptor Boethus.

NICON.

The style proves that they were written after the time of Boethus. Indeed the first epigram bears this expressly, xeiP^y 8e?y^a TraXaiywewv. We have also an epitaph on Nicomedes. (Anthol. Graec. vol. iii. p. 92, &c. x. p. 131, &c. xiii. p. 924. &c. ed. Jacobs.) [ W. M. G. ]

NICON (NtW), historical. 1. A Tarentine, who headed the insurrection of his fellow-citizens against Milon, the governor, who had been left by Pyrrhus in command of the citadel of Tarentum. (Zonar. viii. 6, p. 379, a.)

2. Another Tarentine, surnamed percon, who, together with Philemenus, betrayed his native city to Hannibal during the second Punic war, b. c. 212. The plan was formed by thirteen noble youths, of whom Nicon and Philemenus were the leaders. Having contrived to hold frequent con­ferences with Hannibal, and concert all their mea­sures with him, without exciting any suspicion, they appointed a night for the execution of their scheme, on which the Roman governor, M. Livius, was to give a great feast: and Nicon admitted Hannibal with a body of troops at one gate, while Philemenus contrived to make himself master o£ another, by which he introduced 1000 select African soldiers. The Romans were taken com-, pletely by surprise, and Hannibal made himself master, almost without opposition, of the whole of Tarentum, except the citadel. (Polyb. viii. 26— 36 ; Liv. xxv. 8—10.) The latter was closely blockaded by the Carthaginians and Tarentines, and in 210 a Roman fleet of twenty ships, under D. Quinctius having advanced to its relief, was encountered by that of the Tarentines under De-mocrates, and a naval action ensued, in which Nicon greatly distinguished himself by boarding the ship of the Roman commander, and running Quinctius himself through the body with a spear : an exploit which decided the fortune of the day in favour of the Tarentines. (Liv. xxvi. 39.) The following year (b. c. 209) the Romans having in their turn surprised Tarentum, Nicon fell, fighting bravely, in the combat which ensued in the forum of the city. (Id. xxvii. 16.)

3. A relation of Agathocles, the infamous mi­nister and favourite of Ptolemy Philopator, who was put to death, together with his kinsman, b. c. 205. (Polyb. xv. 33).

4. The treasurer of Perseus, who is called Ni-cias by Livy and Appian, is named Nicon by Dio-dorus (xxx. Exc. Vales, p. 579).

5. A leader of the Cilician pirates, who was taken prisoner by P. Servilius Isauricus. (Cic. in Verr. v. 30. § 79.) He is probably the same person mentioned by Polyaenus, as having occu­pied the town of Pherae in Messenia, from whence he ravaged the neighbouring country ; but having at length been taken prisoner, he surrendered the town into the hands of the Messenians, in order to save his own life. (Polyaen. ii. 35.)

6. A Samian, who saved the ship of which he was steersman, by a dexterous stratagem. (Id. v. 34.) [E. H. B.]

NICON (Nfawj'), literary. 1. A comic writer, assigned by Meineke to the new comedy. A frag­ment of three lines is preserved by Athenaeus, from his play KiOapwfios (xi. p. 487, c.), and Pollux gives a portion of the same passage (vi,. 99). (Meineke, Frag. Poet. Com. vol. i. p. 495, v. p. 578.)

2. An Armenian abbot. He fled from his parents

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