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On this page: Olennius – Olenus – Olophernes – Olorus – Olthacus – Olybrius

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OLOPHERNES.

804; Creuzer, Symbolilc, vol. ii. pp. 116, 130, 136 ; Klausen, in Ersch and Gruber's EncyUop'ddie ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 134.) [P. S.]

OLENNIUS, one of the chief centurions (e primipilaribus), was placed about a. d. 28 over the Frisii, whom Drusus had subdued. (Tac. Ann. iv. 72.)

OLENUS. ("rUews.) 1. A son of Hephaes­tus, and father of the nymphs Aege and He-lice, who brought up Zeus, and from whom the town of Olenus in Aetolia was believed to have derived its name. (Hygin. Poet. Astr. 13 ; Steph. Byz. s. v.)

2. A son of Zeus and the Danaid Anaxithea, from whom the town of Olenus in Achaia derived its name. (Steph. Byz. s. v.; Strab. viii. p. 386.)

3. A person living on Mount Ida, who wanted to take upon himself the punishment which his wife had deserved by her pride of her beauty, and was metamorphosed along with her into stone. (Ov. Met. x. 68, &c.) [L. S.]

T. O'LLIUSjthe father of Poppaea Sabina, was put to death at the latter end of the reign of Tiberius on account of his intimacy with Sejanus. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 45.)

OLOPHERNES or OROPHENES ('OAo-(j)€pj'ris> 'Opotpejw/ijs, 'OppoQepvns). I, Son of Ariamnes I., brother of Ariarathes I., and father of Ariarathes II., kings of Cappadocia. He was much beloved by his brother, who advanced him to the highest posts, and sent him to aid Ar-taxerxesIII. (Ochus) in his subjugation of Egypt, b. c. 350. From this expedition Olophernes returned home, loaded by the Persian king with great rewards for his services, and died in his native land. His brother Ariarathes adopted his elder son of the same name. He left also a younger son, named Aryses or Arysis. (Diod. Eel. 3 ; Phot. Bibl. 244.)

2. One of the two supposititious sons whom Antiochis at first imposed upon her husband, Ariarathes IV., king of Cappadocia. On the birth, however, of a real son, named Mithridates (afterwards Ariarathes V.), Olophernes, that he might not set up pretensions to the throne, was sent away into Ionia, where he does not appear to have improved his morals. When Ariarathes V. refused to marry the sister of Demetrius Soter, the latter supported the claims of Olophernes to the crown of Cappadocia. Olophernes, however, en­tered into a conspiracy with the people of Antioch to dethrone Demetrius, who, having discovered the design, threw him into chains, but spared his life that he might still keep Ariarathes in alarm with his pretensions. In b.c. 157, when Ariarathes had been deposed, and had fled to Rome, Olo­phernes sent thither two unscrupulous ambassadors (Timotheus and Diogenes) to join the emissaries of Demetrius in opposing his (so called) brother. According to Appian the Romans decided that the two claimants should share the throne between them. We are told, however, that Olophernes did not hold the kingdom long, and that his reign was signalized by a departure from the more simple customs of his ancestors, and by the introduction of systematic debauchery, like that of the lonians. To supply his lavish extravagance, he oppressed and pillaged his subjects, putting many to death, and confiscating their property. Four hundred talents he deposited with the citizens of Priene, as a resource in case of a reverse of fortune, and

OLYBRIUS.

these they afterwards restored to him. We read also that, when his affairs were on the decline, and he became alarmed lest his soldiers should mutiny, if their arrears remained unpaid, he plundered a very ancient temple of Zeus, to which great sanc­ tity was attached, to enable him to satisfy their demands. (Diod. Eel. 3, Exc. de Virt. et Vit. p. 588, &c.; Phot. 1. c.; Polyb. xxxii. 20; App. Syr. 47; Liv. Epit. xlvii.; Just. xxxv. 1; Athen. x. p. 440, b ; Dalechamp and Casaub. ad loo.; Ael. V. H. ii. 41; see above, Vol. I. p. 284.) [E. E.]

OLORUS or O'ROLUS ("OAopos, *Opo\os) 1. A King of Thrace, whose daughter Hegesipyla, was married to Miltiades (Herod, vi. 39, 41 ; Marcellin. Vit. Tkuc.)

2. Apparently grandson of the above, and son of Hegesipyla, was probably the offspring of a second marriage contracted by her after the death of Miltiades. This Olorus was the father of Thu-cydides, the historian (Thuc. iv. 104 ; Marcellin. Vit. Thuc.; Suidas, s. v. ©ou/cuSi'Srjs). [E. E.]

OLTHACUS ('OAflaKo's), a chief of the Scy­ thian tribe of the Dandarians, who served in the army of Mithridates the Great, and enjoyed a high place in the favour of that prince, but subsequently deserted to the Romans. This was, however, ac­ cording to Plutarch, a mere feint, for the purpose of obtaining access to Lucullus, and thus effecting his assassination ; but being accidentally foiled in this project, he again returned to the camp of Mithridates. (Plut. Lucull. 16.) Appian, who also relates the same story (Mitlir. 79), writes the name Olcabas. [E. H. B.]

OLYBRIUS, ANFCIUS ('OAi^os), Roman emperor in A. d. 472, was a descendant of the ancient and noble family of the Anicians. Down to 455 he lived in Rome, but left it after its sack by Genseric and the accession of Avitus, and went to Constantinople. In 464, he was made consul; and in the same year, or some time previously, married Placidia, the daughter of the emperor Va-lentinian III., the same princess who had been a captive of Genseric. It appears that Olybrius stood on very intimate terms with that king of the Vandals, who was active in helping him to the im­perial crown of Italy. In 472, during the troubles occasioned by the dissensions between the Western emperor Anthemius and the powerful patrician Ricimer, Olybrius was sent to Italy by Zeno under the pretext of assisting Anthemius; but his real motive was to seize the supreme power, a scheme in which he was openly assisted by Genseric, and secretly by the emperor Zeno, who, it appears, stood in fear of Olybrius on account of his con­nections with the king of the Vandals. Instead, therefore, of promoting the interest of Anthemius, he entered into negotiations with Ricimer, and ere long he was proclaimed emperor by a strong fac­tion, with the connivance of Ricimer, to whom the imperial power was of more value than the imperial title. Anthemius, however, was still in Rome, and enjoyed popularity. When Ricimer came to attack him, Anthemius, supported by Gothic auxiliaries under Gelimer, made a stout resistance, till at last the besieger gained the city in consequence of his victory at the bridge of Hadrian. Rome was once more plundered, and Anthemius was murdered by order of Ricimer (11th July, 472). Olybrius was now recognised as emperor without any opposition, and could exercise his power free from any control, since immediately

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