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On this page: Orsplochus – Ortalus – Orthagoras – Orthia – Orthrus Co – Ortiagon – Ortygia – Orus – Orxines – Osroes – Ossipaga


Mithridatcs the Great, who was taken prisoner by Pompey, and served to adorn his triumph, b.c. 61 (Appian, Mithr. 117). The name Orsobaris occurs also on a coin of the city of Prusias, in Bithynia. which bears the inscription BA2IAI22H2 MOTORS OP20BAPIO5 ; and this is conjectured by Vis- con li (Iconogr. Grecque, torn. ii. p. 195) to refer to the same person as the one mentioned in Appian, whom he supposes to have been married to Socrates, the usurper set up by Mithridates as king of Bithynia. [E. H. B.]

ORSPLOCHUS ('Opo-i'Aoxo*). 1. A son of the river god Alpheius and Telegone, and the father of Diocles, at Pherae, in Messenia. (Horn. II. v. 545, Od. iii. 489, xv. 187, xxi. 15 ; Paus. iv. 30. § 2.)

2. A grandson of No. 1, and brother of Crethon, together with whom he was slain by Aeneias, at Troy. (Horn. //. v. 542, &c. ; Paus. iv. i. § 3.)

3. A son of Idomeneus. (Horn. Od. xiii. 259— 271.) [L. S.]

ORTALUS, or more properly HO'RTALUS, a cognomen of the Hortensii. [hortensius.]

ORTHAGORAS ('OpOaryApas). 1. Of Thebes, mentioned by Socrates in the Protagoras of Plato (p. 318, c.), as one of the most celebrated flute-players of his day, and by Athenaeus as one of the instructors of Epaminondas in flute-playing. (Ath. iv. p. 184, e.)

2. A geographer, whose age is unknown, but whose work on India ('lySol \6yoC) is quoted both by Aeliaii (A~. A. xvi. 35 ; xvii. 6) and by Strabo (xvi. p. 766). His statements in that work, re­ specting the Red Sea, are quoted by Philostratus ( Vit. Apollon. iii. 53 ; Phot. Biblioih. cod. ccxli. p. 327, b. 10, Bekker). [P. S.]

ORTHIA ('Opflfa, 'Op0fe, or 'Opflcoo-i'a), a sur­ name of the Artemis who is also called Iphigeneia or Lygodesma, and must be regarded as the goddess of the moon. Her worship was probably brought to Sparta from Lemnos. It was at the altar of Artemis Orthia that Spartan boys had to undergo the diamastigosis (Schol. ad Find. Ol. iii. 54 ; Herod, iv. 87 ; Xenoph. de Rep. Lac.ii. 10). She also had temples at Brauron, in the Cerameicus at Athens, in Elis, and on the coast of Byzantium. The ancients derived her surname from mount Orthosium or Orthium in Arcadia. [L. S.]

ORTHRUS COpfyos), the dog of Geryones, who was begotten by Typhon and Echidna. (Hes. Theog. 293 ; Apollod. ii. 5. § 10.) [L. S.]

ORTIAGON ('Opndyw), one of the three princes of Galatia, when that country was invaded by the Romans under Cn. Manlius Vulso, in B. c. 189. He was defeated on Mount Olympus by the invaders, and compelled to fly home for refuge. Polybius tells us that he cherished the design of uniting all Galatia under his rule, and that he was well qualified to succeed in the attempt, being liberal, magnanimous, possessed of sagacity and winning manners ; and above all, brave and skilful in war. (Polyb. xxii. 21 ; Liv. xxxviii. 19, &c.) [chiomara] [E. E.]

ORTYGIA ('Opriryi'a), a surname of Artemis, derived from the island of Ortygia, the ancient name for Delos, or an island off Syracuse (Ov. Met. i. 694). The goddess bore this name in various places, but always with reference to the island in which she was born. (Strab. x. p. 486.) [L. S.]

ORUS. [horus ; orion.]

ORUS, the engraver of a beautiful gem, repre-


senting a head of Silenus, in the Museum Worsely- anum, p. 144. [P. S.]

ORXINES COp£ivr]s\ a noble and wealthy Persian, who traced his descent from Cyrus. He was present at the battle of Gaugamela, when, together with Orontobates, he commanded the troops which came from the shores of the Persian Gulf. Subsequently, during the absence of Alex­ ander (b. c. 325), on the death of Phrasaortes, the satrap of Persis, Orxines assumed the government, and on the return of Alexander came to meet him with costly presents. Alexander does not appear to have been incensed at this usurpation, in which indeed Orxines seems to have been actuated by loyal intentions towards Alexander. But the sepulchre of Cyrus at Pasargadae had been violated and pillaged, and the enemies of Orxines seem to have laid hold of this for the purpose of securing his ruin. He was charged with that and other acts of sacrilege, as well as with having abused his power. Arrian says nothing of the charge being unfounded, but Curtius represents Orxines (or Orsines, as he calls him) as the victim of calumny and intrigue. However that may have been, he was crucified by order of Alexander. (Arrian, iii. 8. § 8, vi. 29. § 3 ; Curt. iv. 12. § 8, x. 1. §§ 22, 29, 37.) [C. P. M.J OSACES. [arsaces XIV., p. 356, a.] OSI'RIS (^O(Tipis)y the great Egyptian divinity, and husband of Isis. According to Herodotus they were the only divinities that were worshipped by all the Egyptians (Herod, ii. 42). Osiris is described by Plutarch, in his treatise on Isis and Osiris, as a son of Rhea and Helios. His Egyptian name is said to have been Hysiris (Plut. /. c. 34), which is interpreted to mean " son of Isis," though some said that it meant "many-eyed ;" and accord­ ing to Heliodorus (Aetli. ix. 424), Osiris was the god of the Nile, as Isis was the goddess of the earth. (Comp. Bunsen, Aegypt. Stelle in der Welt- gescli. vol. i. p. 494, &c.) [L. S.] O'SIUS. [Hosius.]

OSROES. [arsaces XXV., p. 359, a.] OSSA (''Oerfra), the personification of rumour or report, the Latin Fama. As it is often impossible to trace a report to its source, it is said to come from Zeus, and hence Ossa is called the mes­ senger of Zeus (Horn. Od. i. 282, ii. 216, xxiv. 412,//. ii. 93). Sophocles (Oed. Tyr. 158) calls her a daughter of Hope, and the poets, both Greek and Latin, have indulged in various imaginary de­ scriptions of Ossa or Fama (Hes. Op. et Dies^ 705, &c.; Virg. Aen. iv. 174, &c.; Ov. Met. xii. 39, &c.). At Athens she was honoured with an altar. (Paus. i. 17. § 1.) [L. S.]

OSSIPAGA, or OSSIPANGA, also written Ossilago, Ossipagina, was a Roman divinity, who was prayed to, to harden and strengthen the bones of infants. (Arnob. adv. Gent. iii. 30, iv. 7.) [L.S.J OSTO'RIUS SABPNUS. [sabinus.] OSTO'RIUS SCA/PULA. [scapula.] OTACPLIA SEVE'RA, MA'RCIA, the wife of the elder M. Julius Philippus, and the mother of the boy who was put to death by the praetorians after the battle of Verona, A. d. 249. She appears to have had a daughter also, since Zosimus speaks of a certain Severianus as the son-in-law of the emperor. No other circumstances are known re­garding this princess, except that she was believed by many of the ancients to have been & Christian. The Alexandrian Chronicle makes a positive asser-

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